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预发表栏目展示本刊经同行评议确定正式录用的文章,这些文章目前处在编校过程,尚未确定卷期及页码,但可以根据DOI进行引用。
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基于切换系统的小推力轨迹优化协态初始化方法
武迪, 程林, 王伟, 李俊峰
, doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200090
摘要:
传统同伦方法通常将小推力燃料最优问题转化为能量最优问题求解,以增加间接法求解的收敛率,但求解能量最优问题仍需要猜测协态初值以初始化求解算法。该研究针对小推力燃料最优问题,将其优化模型嵌入到切换系统,从而将该问题转化为具有解析协态初值的优化问题进行求解,进一步提高了求解的收敛率,并能够以解析协态初值初始化求解算法。首先,将切换系统优化模型与小推力优化模型相结合,常规的切换系统的切换函数是由最优控制得出的,而本研究则采用了人为设计给定的切换函数,实现了不同系统之间的切换和联系;其次,基于标称轨道线性化的方法,给出了具有解析协态初值的目标系统的设计,无需复杂标称轨道即可实现协态初始化;最后,数值仿真验证了该方法的有效性,相比于传统同伦方法具有更高的求解效率。
新一代单体月球激光角反射器方案设计
何芸, 胡泽主, 黎明, 刘祺, 叶贤基
, doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20190227003
摘要:
设计了用于新一代月球激光测距(Lunar Laser Ranging,LLR)的单体大孔径激光角反射器,在分析当前国内外研究进展及发展趋势基础上,介绍了所设计的单体大孔径激光角反射器的整体设计方案,具体包括:角反射器的设计和月面安置方案、地面测试方案。验证结果表明:所设计的单体170 mm孔径空心角锥角反射器,在月面经历的温度范围约为(-170~+130)°C,在 ± 532 nm波长,角反射器的反射率并没有显著的衰减情况。该研究预期可将月球激光测距的单个接收光子对应的内符合精度提升至毫米量级。
大推力氢氧发动机故障仿真与试验研究
张箭, 巩岩博, 刘忠恕, 王维彬
摘要:
为对大推力氢氧发动机的某次试验开展故障定位,建立了液体火箭发动机动态特性仿真模型库,搭建了大推力氢氧发动机动态特性仿真模型,并通过与试验实测参数对比,验证了仿真模型的准确性。针对发动机可能出现的故障,依次开展仿真计算,将获得的结果与故障实测参数进行对比,得到最有可能的故障模式为氧涡轮排气管路阻塞。通过试验对仿真结果开展验证,结果吻合良好,证明了故障定位的准确性与通过动态仿真实现大推力氢氧发动机故障定位的方法可行性,为未来发展大推力氢氧发动机故障监测与定位技术奠定了基础。
“长征五号”火箭大容量调频遥测系统研制
林敏, 张佳宁, 徐林丰, 祝伟, 任宁
, doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210040
摘要:
遥测系统负责获取全箭飞行遥测数据,是事后评定火箭综合性能的关键。本文介绍了应用于“长征五号”(CZ-5)运载火箭的新一代大容量调频遥测系统的总体方案与组成。重点针对10 Mbps高码率调频遥测关键技术应用面临的问题,从调频遥测增强技术应用、分级基带数据综合与传输、高增益天馈系统三个方面给出了技术攻关情况与飞行试验应用验证结果。结合研制历程,总结了新一代火箭大容量调频遥测系统的研制经验以及拓展应用情况。
“长征五号”系列运载火箭总体方案与关键技术
李东, 李平岐, 王珏, 黄兵, 刘秉
摘要:
“长征五号”(CZ-5)运载火箭是中国全新研制的新一代大型运载火箭,先后圆满完成了中国首次火星探测、探月三期工程“嫦娥五号”探测器发射任务。运载火箭历经30余年关键技术攻关和工程研制,在研制过程中,研发团队攻克了大量的工程技术难题,积累了丰富的大型低温运载火箭研制经验,构建了新一代运载火箭的研制体系,运载火箭的研制能力和研制基础有了质的提升。本文叙述了“长征五号”的研制背景,立足火箭总体技术方案及技术创新,论述了火箭发展思路及模块化构型方案、全箭总体优化设计技术、大直径大集中载荷箭体结构技术等方面内容,探讨了针对深空探测任务的“长征五号”关键技术攻关,具体有深空探测任务轨道设计及优化技术、窄窗口多轨道发射技术。“长征五号”火箭是中国新一代运载火箭标志性重大工程,代表了中国运载火箭技术的最高水平,是中国由航天大国迈向航天强国的重要标志。
“长征五号”液氧煤油发动机总体技术
陈建华, 曹晨, 杨永强, 李妙婷, 侯瑞峰
, doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210003
摘要:
高压补燃液氧煤油发动机应用于“长征五号”(CZ-5)运载火箭助推模块,该发动机采用高压补燃循环,具有高性能、自身起动、大范围推力和混合比调节、结构紧凑等特点。本文回顾了“长征五号”助推液氧煤油发动机研制历程和技术方案特点,分析了液氧煤油发动机自身起动点火技术、双机并联大时差不同步关机技术、单机和双机并联发动机整机结构低频特性等研制中的发动机总体技术。提出了YF-100液氧煤油补燃发动机性能提升、结构轻质化、可靠性增长和全任务剖面环境适应性的改进方向,以及对高精度发动机在线故障诊断系统的需求。
“嫦娥五号”任务再入返回段测控布站区域确定方法
陈少伍, 李赞, 樊敏, 李海涛, 程承
, doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200053
摘要:
针对再入返回任务地面测控总体分析设计中多天多条弹道地面测站布局优化及返回过程中应急情况下快速测控资源调配的问题,提出了一种基于再入段返回器飞行弹道的测站区域分析方法。建立了测站、返回器的位置与测站工作仰角之间的关系模型,在此基础上提出了对返回器可见的测站分布区域确定的具体方法。利用再入返回过程的理论设计弹道,计算了地面测站的分布区域。仿真结果表明,所提出的方法能快速获取对返回器可见的测站区域,已成功应用于“嫦娥五号”工程任务中,其可为再入深空返回总体设计、返回应急测控提供借鉴和参考。
空间甚低频太阳II型射电暴研究进展
高冠男, 汪敏, 董亮, 郭少杰
, doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2020.20190222001
摘要(284) HTML(100) PDF 992KB(6)
摘要:
耀斑和日冕物质抛射(Solar flares and coronal Mass Ejections,CME)是产生灾害性空间天气的源扰动。II型射电暴是CME驱动的激波在日冕和行星际空间中运动引起电磁波辐射的结果。以研究太阳物理和空间天气预警预报为背景,对II型射电暴特别是甚低频II型射电暴的频谱特征以及物理成因进行分析,认为甚低频II型射电暴不但可以用于估计CME激波的运动速度、诊断日冕磁场等物理参数,还可以为空间天气预警预报方面提供参考。研究结果可以为空间甚低频射电观测设备的科学研究及应用方面提供有益的参考。
Adaptive Control for Space Greenhouse Light Assembly
Yu. Berkovich, A. Buryak, O. Ochkov, O. Perevedentsev, S. Smolyanina
, doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2020.20191108001
摘要:
To date, Light Emitting Diodes-based (LED) illuminators are widely used for plants lighting in greenhouses in addition to natural light, as well as in plant factories without natural light. Optimization of artificial lighting parameters, such as the daily light integral and the ratios of different spectral components, can significantly reduce the cost of crop production in light culture including Space Greenhouses (SG) in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). However, the optimization of LED lighting systems is so far limited by the lack of information about the physiological effects caused by narrow-band radiation, as well as the complexity of the mathematical description of plant crops reactions to the changes of LED lighting parameters. In conditions of artificial illumination, crop producers usually strive to establish an optimal light regime that is constant throughout the whole growing season. However, there is experimental data on changes in the requirements for the illumination regime of crops with increasing age of plants. A promising approach to improving the parameters of crops LED lighting is the adaptive method of search engine optimization using biological feedback. The Adaptive Lighting System (ALS) is described on the basis of illuminator with red and white LEDs built at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (Moscow, Russia) for Chinese cabbage cultivation. The adaptive control procedure implements a continuous automatic search for current lighting parameters that provide optimal plant growth characteristics in real time. ALS includes a closed growth chamber with Light Assembly (LA) based on red and white LEDs, equipped with a Gas CO2 Analyzer (GA). The Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) from each type of LEDs can be controlled independently from each other according to the program in the MicroProcessor (MP). Periodically, infrared GA measures the decrease in CO2 concentration inside the growth chamber caused by Visible Photosynthesis (VF) of the crop. MP receives a signal from the GA output and calculates the photosynthesis rate of the crop, as well as the value of the lighting quality functional at the current time. Then the program compares the obtained values of the optimization criterion at the current moment and at the previous step and calculates the direction of the gradient according to picked algorithm and the new values of the LED supply currents, leading to a change in the value of the optimization criterion in the right direction. Further, the power supply unit realizes the currents of LED chains of each type and LA changes the plant lighting mode. As a criterion for the lighting quality in SG we used the minimum specific value of the Equivalent System Mass (ESM), which depends on the plants lighting regime. The cost coefficients of the unit of SG planting area equivalent mass and the unit of electric power consumed by SG significantly depend both on the spacecraft design and on the space expedition scenario. According to the literature, the equivalent system mass estimates depending on the light flux density and the crop light efficiency have been calculated in a spacecraft for the space expedition scenario at a long-term use lunar base with a crew of 4. To search for the current optimal lighting parameters during the plant growth, gradient and simplex algorithms were used. As optimization factors, the integral PPFD incident on the crop at the shoot tips level and the ratio of red and white light flux densities (factors X1 and X2, respectively) were used. Factor X1 was regulated in the range from 200 μmol/(m2·s) to 700 μmol/(m2·s), and factor X2 was from 0 to 1.5. The effectiveness of ALS was evaluated by comparing ESM when using ALS or the best constant LED lighting from comparison experiment. Adaptive optimization of Chinese cabbage crop lighting from the 14th to 24th day of vegetation according to the minimum ESM criterion (1) for the lunar base expedition led to a 14.9% saving in the SG equivalent mass. Similar systems with other optimization criterion can be use for terrestrial plant factories.
专题:月球采样返回任务关键技术及其科学分析
“嫦娥五号”任务总体方案权衡设计
裴照宇, 任俊杰, 彭兢, 王琼, 胡震宇, 李海涛, 黄磊, 耿光有
, doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210028
摘要:
针对月球采样返回任务要求,基于我国运载火箭研制进展、探月工程一期、二期技术基础,对探测器的总体方案、功能模块组成、发射方式、飞行过程等方面进行多方案多轮迭代权衡分析,并逐步优化,最终确定了“嫦娥五号”(Chang’E-5,CE-5)探测器模块组成、主要飞行过程。工程在轨结果充分证明了该方案符合我国探月工程发展规划和航天技术发展的预期,是先进可行的,设计过程采用的NAFVO(Need Available Feasible Viable Optimal)权衡设计方法可为复杂大型航天工程方案的设计提供有益的借鉴。