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载人火星探测的行星保护
徐侃彦1,2,3, 马玲玲1,2,3, 印红1,2,3, 张秦1,2,3, 邹乐洋4
1.航天神舟生物科技集团有限公司, 北京 100190;2.北京市空间生物工程技术研究中心, 北京 100190;3.中国航天科技集团公司空间生物工程研究中心, 北京100190;4.北京空间飞行器总体设计部, 北京 100086
摘要:
行星保护是影响载人火星探索任务的重要问题之一。载人探测的行星保护包括3个方面,即防止来源于地球的微生物污染目标星球的正向污染防护、防止外来生物对地球的潜在危害的逆向污染防护,以及确保航天员的健康和安全。国际宇航界已经开始针对载人火星探测的行星保护制定政策法规和开展技术研讨。本文介绍了行星保护的定义和法理依据,简要回顾了美国国家航空航天局在“阿波罗登月”中的行星保护措施,并对未来载人火星探测中的主要污染物、污染途径以及污染防护策略进行了初步探讨。
关键词:  行星保护;载人火星探测;正向污染;逆向污染;污染物;污染途径
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2019.01.004
分类号:V11
基金项目:载人航天领域第四批预先研究项目(010101)
Planetary Protection for Manned Mars Exploration
XU Kanyan1,2,3, MA Lingling1,2,3, YIN Hong1,2,3, ZHANG Qin1,2,3, ZOU Leyang4
1.Shenzhou Space Biology Science and Technology Coorporation, Ltd., Beijing 100190, China;2.Space Biology Research and Technology Center, Beijing 100190, China;3.Space Biology R & D Center of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation Ltd., Beijing 100190, China;4.Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering, Beijing 100086, China
Abstract:
Planetary protection is one of the key problems which will greatly affect the future human missions to Mars. Planetary protection has three major goals:1)The protection of extraterrestrial planet from terrestrial life contamination (forward contamination prevention);2) The protection of Earth from extraterrestrial life (back contamination prevention);3) The protection of the health and safety of astronauts. The international aerospace community has begun to formulate policies and conduct technical discussions on planetary protection for human Mars missions. In this review,the definition and legal base of planetary protection are introduced,and the planetary protection implementation of NASA Apollo program is reviewed,and the major contaminants,contamination pathway,and contamination control strategy for future human Mars missions are discussed.
Key words:  planetary protection;human Mars mission;forward contamination;back contamination;contaminant;contamination pathway