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空间核动力源的安全性研究进展
胡文军1, 陈红永1, 陈军红1, 李上明1, 胡绍全1, 唐玉华2
1.中国工程物理研究院 总体工程研究所, 绵阳 621999;2.探月与航天工程中心, 北京 100037
摘要:
同位素热/电源以及空间核反应堆在深空探测任务中有重要应用。通过调研其技术特点以及国际上针对核能空间应用安全性的相关规范,研究了其空间安全性规范的法律法规。以ALRH(Apollo Lunar Radiosotope Heater,阿波罗月球任务同位素热源)、GPHS(General Purpose Heater Source,通用型热源)、LWRHU(Lighted Weighted Radiosotope Heater Unit,轻量放射性同位素热源)、MMRTG(Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator,多任务型放射性同位素电源)等同位素热/电源及俄罗斯热离子空间反应堆电源(TOPAZ-II型号)为例,结合美俄开展的同位素热/电源的系列安全性试验,重点关注了不同型号的试验及分析技术细节,并分析了同位素热/电源的空间应用安全评价方法,可为开展相关研发提供技术参考。
关键词:  同位素热源;同位素电源;空间核反应堆,深空探测;安全性试验
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2017.05.006
分类号:
基金项目:
Advances of Safety Research on Nuclear Space Power Sources
HU Wenjun1, CHEN Hongyong1, CHEN Junhong1, LI Shangming1, HU Shaoquan1, TANG yuhua2
1.Institute of Systems Engineering, China Academy of Engineering Physics, Mianyang 621999, China;2.Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center, Beijing 100037, China
Abstract:
The RHU(Radiosotope Heater Unit), RTG (Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator) and space nuclear reactors have wide applications in deep space exploration missions. The safety principles are investigated based on their technology characteristics and the applications of nuclear sources in outer space are introduced, such as the RHU/RTG of ALRH (Apollo Lunar Radiosotope Heater), GPHS(General Purpose Heater Source) and LWRHU (Lighted Weighted Radiosotope Heater Unit), MMRTG (Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator), and space nuclear reactor of TOPAZ-II.The safety tests and analysis done by the United States and Russia are studied, and the safety validation and assess approach are reviewed, The work focuses on the technology details of the tests and analysis of RHU/RTG for different missions. The work would serve as reference for the application of nuclear source in outer space.
Key words:  Radiosotope Heater Unit;Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator;Space Nuclear Reactor,deep space exploration;safety test