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深空探测先进电源技术综述
牛厂磊1, 罗志福1, 雷英俊2, 王文强3, 郑见杰4, 乔学荣5, 罗洪义1, 胡文军6, 钟武烨1
1.中国原子能科学研究院,北京 102413;2.北京空间飞行器总体设计部,北京 100094;3.上海空间电源研究所 物理电源事业部,上海 200245;4.天津空间电源科技有限公司,天津 300384;5.中国电子科技集团公司 第十八研究所,天津 222500;6.中国工程物理研究院 总体工程研究所,绵阳 621900
摘要:
先进电源技术是保障深空探测任务顺利进行的前提和基础。在梳理我国后续深空探测任务(月球极区探测、小天体探测、火星探测、木星探测等)对电源系统需求的基础上,对涉及空间应用的电源技术(化学能、太阳能、同位素及空间核反应堆电源)进行概述;针对深空探测对电源系统的需求特点,分别阐述了锂离子蓄电池、太阳能电源、钚-238放射性同位素电源和空间堆核反应电源的特点、发展简史、在深空探测中应用限制及发展建议,重点分析了钚-238同位素电源和空间核反应堆电源技术的关键技术、应用情况及应用前景,为深空探测先进电源技术的长足发展提供参考。
关键词:  深空探测  先进能源  太阳能电源  锂离子蓄电池  钚-238同位素电源  空间核反应堆电源
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200002
分类号:V442
基金项目:核能开发资助项目
Advanced Power Source Technology of Deep Space Exploration
NIU Changlei1, LUO Zhifu1, LEI Yingjun2, WANG Wenqiang3, ZHENG Jianjie4, QIAO Xuerong5, LUO Hongyi1, HU Wenjun6, ZHONG Wuye1
1.China Institute of Atomic Energy,Beijing 102413,China;2.Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering,Beijing 100094,China;3.Department of Physical Power,Shanghai Institute of Space Power,Shanghai 200245,China;4.Tianjin Space Power Technology Co.,Ltd,Tianjin 300384,China;5.Tianjin Institute of Power Sources,Tianjing 222500,China;6.Institute of Systems Engineering,China Academy of Engineering Physics,Mianyang 621999,China
Abstract:
Advanced power supply technology is the prerequisite for deep space exploration mission. Based on the requirements of power supply system of China’s follow-up deep space exploration missions, such as the explorations of polar region of Lunar, small celestial bodies, Mars, Jupiter, and so on, the advanced power source technologies for deep space exploration are reviewed, including the chemical battery, solar cell, radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) and space nuclear reactor power. According to the requirements of power supply system of deep space exploration, the remarkable feature, brief history, application limits and development proposals of Lithium ions battery, solar cell, Pu-238 RTG and space nuclear reactor power are presented, and focusing on the analysis of the key technology, practical application, application prospects of Pu-238 RTG and space nuclear reactor power, providing a reference for long-term development of advanced power source technology of deep space exploration.
Key words:  deep space exploration  advanced energy  solar power system  Lithium ions battery  Plutonium-238 RTG  space nuclear reactor power