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中国探月工程
吴伟仁1, 刘继忠1, 唐玉华1, 于登云2, 于国斌1, 张哲1
1.探月与航天工程中心, 北京 100190;2.中国航天科技集团有限公司, 北京 100048
摘要:
“嫦娥4号”于2019年1月3日成功实现人类航天器首次在月球背面软着陆,“玉兔2号”月球车率先在月背刻上了中国足迹。至今,国际月球探测活动共实施126次,期间出现两个探月高潮。20世纪50—70年代,美苏两个航天大国之间的竞争引起第一轮探月高潮。20世纪末至今,各航天国家意识到月球探测的战略意义,纷纷提出月球探测计划并积极实施,月球成为各国争先探测的热点,掀起第二轮探月热潮。中国自2004年首次绕月探测工程立项实施以来,共开展了“嫦娥1号”“嫦娥2号”“嫦娥3号”“嫦娥4号”及再入返回飞行试验共5次月球探测任务,实现“五战五捷”,在空间技术、空间科学与应用、国际合作等方面取得了非凡成就,积累了丰富的经验,后续将继续开展以无人月球科研站为主的月球探测活动。
关键词:  探月工程;嫦娥4号;热点;成就;启示
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2019.05.001
分类号:V41
基金项目:
China Lunar Exploration Program
WU Weiren1, LIU Jizhong1, TANG Yuhua1, YU Dengyun2, YU Guobin1, ZHANG Zhe1
1.Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center, Beijing 100190, China;2.China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation, Beijing 100048, China
Abstract:
The Chang'E-4 probe was successfully soft landed on the far side of the moon for the first time as a human spacecraft on January 3, 2019, while the lunar rover named as "Yutu-2" leaving Chinese footprints on the Moon. So far, 125 lunar exploration activities have been carried out in the world, during which there are two important periods. During the period from 1950s to 1970s, the first round of lunar exploration culminated with the purposes of the race between the two space powers the U. S. and the former Soviet Union. After that, from the end of last century to now, many countries realize the strategic significance of the Lunar exploration, proposing their new lunar exploration plans, which culminated the second round of lunar exploration. Starting from the Chang'E-1 orbiter project in 2004, China has implemented five successful lunar missions, include Chang'E-1, 2, 3, 4, and Lunar Sample Return flight test. All five missions are successful, and great achievements have been made in space technology, space science and application, personal training, and international cooperation. China will continue lunar exploration activities mainly with unmanned Lunar Scientific Research Station.
Key words:  lunar exploration program;Chang'E-4;hot spot;achievement;enlightenment