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Articles prepublish have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Display Method:
A Low-resolution Slope Compensation Method Involving Slope Change Rate
YIN Li, YE Lejia, DI Kaichang, LIU Bin, SUN Xiaozhu, WANG Changhuan, BO Zheng
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210161
Abstract(7)
Abstract:
To solve the problem of slope reduction caused by the lack of high-resolution DEM on the surface of moon, Mars and other planets, this paper proposes a low-resolution slope compensation method involving slope change rate factor. It is an improvement of the existing linear compensation method by incorporating slope change rate into the compensation model to improve the accuracy of slope compensation. In this paper, lunar and Martian data are used to verify the method. Several lunar and Martian low-resolution DEMs covering a variety of terrains are selected and compensated using the improved method. Then they are validated using slopes generated from the high-resolution DEMs. The results show that after applying the proposed compensation function, the compensated slopes can represent the terrain features of the lunar and Martian surface better compared to the original low-resolution slopes. Meanwhile, the proposed method considering the slope change rate is more effective than the traditional linear compensation method. Based on the improved method, the overall and hierarchical compensation models suitable for various lunar landforms are given and the low-resolution Martian slope data covering 50 km*50 km of the Tianwen-1 landing site are compensated and analyzed.
Simulation and Application of Moon-Based Earth Observation Image
DENG Yu, GUO Huadong, LIU Guang, YE Hanlin, HUANG Jing
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.20210073
Abstract(8)
Abstract:
To solve the problem that the existing simulation system only qualitatively describes the Moon-based observational image, an image simulation method based on rigorous imaging model for Moon-based platform is proposed, and the quantitative relationship between the image point and object point is established. The method is applied to the simulation of observation geometric image and radiation energy image. Based on the long time series simulation results, the effect of lunar orbit on geometric images and radiation energy images are further analyzed and summarized. The results show that this image simulation method based on the rigorous imaging model is feasible, and accurately expresses the image characteristics changing with lunar orbit. This method lays a foundation for the application of Moon-based observational images, and has great significance for the subsequent parameter design of different types of Moon-based sensors.
Research on Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Moon-Based SAR Earth Observation
CHEN Guoqiang, GUO Huadong, LIANG Da, DING Yixing, LV Mingyang, LIU Guang
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
Abstract(17)
Abstract:
With the rapid development of lunar exploration, the concept of moon-based observation of earth has received more and more attention. The synthetic aperture radar (SAR) deployed on the moon for earth observation can obtain continuous observations of large areas on earth surface, and realize a single wide-area observation mode which makes up for the deficiency of space-borne SAR. Based on the JPL ephemeris data, in this paper the observation difference of moon-based SAR in different scenarios such as time domain and space domain was analyzed, and the simulation of SAR echo was completed using the actual earth-moon spatial relationship. The results show that the moon-based SAR can always find the intersection line of zero Doppler plane on earth surface, and long-term, large-scale periodic observations can be achieved. The SAR echo simulation verifies its feasibility. The study of moon-based SAR observations can provide a basis for follow-up studies such as surface tidal movement and polar sea ice rebound.
Geometric Simulation of Earth’s Outgoing Radiation Viewed from a Moon-Based Platform
HUANG Jing, GUO Huadong, LIU Guang, DENG Yu
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210078
Abstract(5)
Abstract:
Due to the characteristics of integrity, multi-angle and long period, a Moon-based platform is expected to accurately estimate Earth outgoing radiation. To evaluate this platform’s capabilities, this paper established a one-to-one mapping algorithm based on the geometric relationship and used the Goddard Earth Observing System model version 5 (GEOS-5) data as model input to simulate Earth’s outgoing radiation viewed from a Moon-based platform, so as to learn about the regularity of Earth outgoing radiation viewed from the Moon-based platform. Results show that a Moon-based platform can cover about 178° both in latitudinal and longitudinal direction in one image, including the polar regions. The changing inclination of the orbit of the Moon gives a better observation condition for high latitude regions, and the viewing zenith angle in polar regions can reach to 60°. These results indicate the simulation method can effectively support the observation of Earth’s outgoing radiation observation and lay the foundation for future research.
Articles just accepted have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
Display Method:
Martian Landing Area Morphology Interpretation and Quantitative Analysis of the Zhurong Rover
LIU Jia, LIU Bin, DI Kaichang, YUE Zongyu, YU Tianyi, WANG Jia, GOU Sheng
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022
Abstract(8)
Abstract:
Tianwen-1 lander and rover successfully landed in the southern Utopia Planitia of Mars on May 15, 2021. As China's first Mars exploration mission, Tianwen-1 achieved orbiting, landing and patrolling tasks in one mission. In this paper, utilizing the photogrammetry methods to produce mapping products from high-resolution orbiter remote sensing images, and to analyze the landing area environment, is not only important for the path planning and safe driving of the Mars rover, but also provides fundamental information for science research. Mainly focuses on the Tianwen-1 landing area (within the surrounding 20 km of the landing point), and utilizes the 5 m/pixel CTX DOM and Tianwen-1 DEM product data to quantitatively analysis the impact crater density, impact crater depth, depth-to-diameter ratio, etc. Further interpretation and analysis of the geomorphic feature and geological background of the landing area are conducted. The results shown that there are many small craters, transverse aeolian ridge, pitted cones, structural ridges and throughs in the study region, most of the impact craters on the surface of the landing area are secondary craters or degraded impact craters, with an aspect ratio between 0.001 to 0.136. In addition to in-depth analysis of the geological and geomorphological features of the landing area, the crater statistics and geomorphic feature analysis are valuable to support geological evolution study of the Utopia Planitia.
Potential Moon-Based Platform Sites of Lunar South Polar Regions
ZHANG Jidong, LI Xiangyue, PING Jinsong
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210079
Abstract(13)
Abstract:
Aiming at the location selection of Moon-based platform in the lunar south polar regions, the surface illumination, the Earth observation conditions and the slope are selected as the main indicators, which shows the solar energy and thermal environment on the lunar surface, the ability to obtain scientific data, and the construction difficulty. Based on the topography data and the orbit data of the Sun, the Earth and the Moon, a integrated solar illumination and Earth observation geometric model is established and used to study seven key areas (M1 ~ M7). The lunar surface positions with the illumination rate greater than 80% and the Earth observation rate greater than 30% are taken as the primary selection area of the Moon-based platform, next, their slope conditions are analyzed and a graded evaluation is carried out. Combined with the characteristics of each primary selected area, three lunar positions with higher optimization level are finally recommended, which are located at the eastern edge of De Gerlache crater (in M1), the mountaintop where Sverdrup crater connects with Shackleton crater (in M4), and the mountaintop between the Shackleton crater and the Slater crater (in M7), and these results will provide reference for the follow-up lunar south polar exploration missions.
Recent Advances and Prospects in Extraterrestrial Planets Mapping
XU Qing, GENH Xun
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210162
Abstract(8)
Abstract:
The topographic mapping of extraterrestrial planets can provide basic geospatial data for engineering missions and various planetary scientific research, which can be used to select landing sites, plan path of rovers and conduct planetary geological and geomorphological analysis. We summarize the representative topographic mapping techniques and products in the exploration missions of moon, Mars and asteroids. This paper focuses on the research status of the techniques of generating digital orthophoto map and digital elevation model using mapping camera and LiDAR. We also give some suggestions on standard setting, data sharing, key technical bottlenecks and data processing technology system of extraterrestrial planets mapping.
Topography Modeling, Mapping and Analysis of the China’s First Mars Mission Tianwen-1 Landing Area from Remote Sensing Images
LIU Sicong, TONG Xiaohua, LIU Shijie, XIE Huan, ZHAO Hui, LIU Dayong, XU Xiong, YE Zhen, WANG Chao, LIU Xianglei
Abstract(18)
Abstract:
By using multi-source remote sensing image data from the Mars Orbiters, this paper develops the technical framework for Martian surface topography fine 3D modeling and automatic classification. In particular, the high-resolution terrain of the Tianwen-1 landing area is made up by combining use of the photogrammetry and the Shape-from-Shading (SFS) methods. In the meantime, the high-resolution images are used to classify and analyze the topography category and distribution of the land area using a deep convolution neural network. The profile analysis results show that the high-precision terrain data presented in this paper are highly consistent with National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) and China National Space Administration (CNSA) developed digital elevation model (DEM) products, where the mean elevation errors are 1.866m and 1.074m, respectively. Furthermore, it can be seen from the comprehensive terrain and morphology analysis by using the orbiter remote sensing images that near the landing point the slope is less than 3° and the fluctuation of the surface is less than 30cm. This indicates that the overall terrain of the Tianwen-1 landing area is flat and the morphology category is relatively single, which meets the requirements of the probe's safe landing. The terrain and classification results produced by the Tianwen-1 analysis high-resolution camera data can be effectively applied to the morphological analysis of the landing and patrol areas. Combined with multi-source Mars remote sensing data such as HiRISE, it can provide important basic data and reference information for the subsequent scientific exploration of Zhurong patrol.
Characteristics Analysis of Moon-Based Earth’s Outgoing Radiation Monitoring at the Top of Atmosphere
YE Hanlin, DENG Yu, LIU Guang, GUO Huadong
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210074
Abstract(7)
Abstract:
The characteristics of Moon-based Earth’s outgoing radiation at the top of the atmosphere were investigated for the parameter design of the Moon-based radiometer. Based on the single-point observation geometry for a Moon-based platform, this paper analyzed observational characteristics and data of different Moon-based platform’s positions on the lunar surface, and the observational sampling characteristics. The results indicate that the orbit of the Moon is with variable orbital inclination and observation distance to the Earth, and equipping a radiometer on the lunar surface can sample the whole Earth’s surface within one orbital period. In addition, the suggested dynamic range is from 5.50×10-2 to 8.50×10-2 W m-2, its temporal sampling interval is no more than 4 hours, and the accumulative sampling period is one orbital period (27.3 days). The above results provide an important basis for the design of the Moon-based radiometer.
Research Status and Prospect of Moon-Based Earth Observation: A Review
GUO Huadong, Ding Yixing, Liu Guang
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210080
Abstract(14)
Abstract:
The deployment of remote sensing sensors on the moon can realize long-term, overall and stable earth observation and improve the observation ability of the existing system. In particular, from the outside of the earth system, the moon-based remote sensors can observe the evolution process of the earth system and the interaction and influence between the earth system and its exterior. This paper discusses the research progress of moon-based earth observation in detail from four aspects: scientific objectives, sensor technologies, parameter simulation and estimation methods and observatory location. At present, the researches are focused on the scientific issues referring to Earth’s radiation budget, large scale motion of solid Earth, Earth’s life signal, large-scale interaction between sea, land and atmosphere, near-Earth space targets and near-Earth space environment. The radiometer, spectrometer and synthetic aperture radar are preliminarily selected as the main payloads of the moon-based earth observatory, and a series of new models and methods are proposed for feasibility analysis, mission design, data processing and information extraction. The establishment of moon-based earth observation system is a complex project, which puts forward high requirements for human scientific and technological level. The implementation of some sensors even requires the further development of technology. In the future, we need to expand the application direction and scientific connotation of moon-based earth observation, carry out extensive international cooperation, formulate reasonable development plans, and realize moon-based earth observation in stages.
Study on the Morphological Characteristics and Genesis of Dome Around Chang'e 5 Sampling Point
WU Wenhui, Paliguli·JIEENSI, REN Xin, CHEN Yuan, SUN Guoyang
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210068
Abstract(110)
Abstract:
Mons Rümker and Mairan volcanic dome structure are distributed around Chang'e 5 sampling point, at present, there is a lack of comparative research on their morphological characteristics, genesis and classification standards. Therefore, we compare the morphological characteristics and formation factors of the two types of domes through Chang'e image and topographic data, and discuss the division criteria of domes. In this study, 13 lunar mare domes of Mons Rümker and 4 non-mare domes of Mairan were delineated, and the magma rheological parameters during the formation of the domes were calculated. The results show that the Rümker lunar mare domes is relatively low and flat, according to the slope and height, it is divided into Rümker type I lunar mare dome (slope < 5 °, height 200-400 m) and Rümker type II mare dome (slope 5 ° -7 °, height 300-600 m). Among them, the second kind of higher and steeper lunar sea dome has higher viscosity and lower eruption rate.Compared with the Rümker mare dome, the Mairan non-mare dome is higher and steeper, and its magma eruption rate is generally lower than mare domes, with high magma viscosity , poor fluidity and long eruption cycle;. Spatially, the four non lunar mare domes where Mairan is located are linearly distributed and their material composition and formation time are similar, indicating that they are highly related to each other.
Trajectory Optimization Design for Multiple-Target Asteroid Flyby Mission in Ecliptic Plane
HAO Zhixin, ZHENG Jianhua, LI Mingtao
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210143
Abstract(41)
Abstract:
Closely flying by asteroids can help to capture asteroid surface images, measure asteroid spectra, and obtain physical and chemical properties of asteroids. In particular, flying by multiple asteroids with potential hazards to the earth in one mission will significantly improve the understanding of the characteristics of potentially hazardous asteroids, and it is also of great significance to asteroid defense missions. In this paper, the trajectory for the multiple asteroid flyby mission of potentially hazardous asteroids was optimized. Firstly, the time and position distribution of asteroids passing through the ecliptic plane were analyzed, and the basic strategy of asteroids flyby in the ecliptic was determined. The time of asteroids crossing the ecliptic was taken as the time of asteroids’ flyby. Secondly, the sequential flyby sequence was optimized via beam selection tree search algorithm, and an optimization model for fast and effective solution of asteroid sequential flyby mission trajectory was established. The simulation results show that missions launched from 2024 to 2028 can fly by at least 18 potentially hazardous asteroids, especially the launch window in September 2027 which can fly by 21 potentially hazardous asteroids within a ten-year mission duration.
Content
2022 Vol.9 No.2 Content
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2022, 9(2).  
Abstract(15) PDF 18575KB(8)
Abstract:
Topic:Sampling and Detection Technology of Icy Lunar Regolith (Guest Editor:Professor JIANG Shengyuan, Harbin Institute of Technology)
Overview of Water Ice Sampling and Detection Techniques in the Lunar Polar Region
JI Jie, ZHANG Weiwei, YANG Xu, LIU Junwei, MA Ruqi, SUN Jing, JIANG Shengyuan
2022, 9(2): 101-113.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210151
Abstract(80) HTML(13) PDF 4403KB(34)
Abstract:
For the aim of scientific exploration of lunar water ice, this review summarizes the challenges and key technologies needed for water ice sampling and detection in the lunar polar region according to the lunar polar environment and the characteristics of lunar water ice. For the demand of selection of water ice sampling site, according to different working principles, five methods were summarized: mechanical sensing, thermoelectric physical property sensing, radar detection, spectrum detection and neutron spectrum detection. Then, for the demand of surface-exposed water ice sampling, three kinds of surface sampling techniques, including scooping, shallow drilling, and grinding were described. For the needs of subsurface buried water ice sampling, first, the subsurface regolith penetration techniques for extraterrestrial objects were summarized, then six kinds of drilling sampling techniques were introduced, including integrated sensing, volatile extraction, lunar surface drilling cuttings acquisition, bit external cuttings acquisition, bit internal cuttings acquisition and coring. Finally, suggestions on technical approaches for China’s implementing lunar water ice sampling and exploration missions were put forward.
Research Progress of Penetration and In-Situ Detection of Planetary Regolith Physical Properties
JIANG Shengyuan, ZHANG Weiwei, YANG Yubin, LI Honglang, HE Huaiyu, ZHANG He, HUANG Jiangchuan, DENG Zongquan
2022, 9(2): 114-122.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20191106001
Abstract(29) HTML(13) PDF 2437KB(9)
Abstract:
Kinetic penetration is an effective method for in-situ detection of planetary regolith, especially for geological structure and physical and chemical properties. The research status and development trends of the penetrating-type in-situ detection of planetary profiles are investigated and its critical techniques and solutions are summarized. According to China’s general plans of future deep space exploration and critical technology requirements, penetrating-type in-situ investigation perspectives are put forward for lunar, Mars, and asteroid respectively, which will provide new methods and new schemes for the project argumentation and key technology research of the extraterrestrial object exploration project in China.
Review of the Lunar Regolith and Water Ice on the Poles of the Moon
LI Xiongyao, WEI Guangfei, ZENG Xiaojia, LI Yang, TANG Hong, LIU Jianzhong, JIANG Shengyuan, ZOU Meng, MA Jinan, WANG Chu, HE Huaiyu, ZHENG Wanping, CLOUTICS Edward
2022, 9(2): 123-133.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210147
Abstract(54) HTML(37) PDF 2473KB(14)
Abstract:
Water can be trapped at permanently shadowed regions(PSRs)of the Moon for billions of years due to the extremely low temperatures. Polar exploration targeting water ice can help us understand water evolution and future resource utilization. This study reviews lunar explorations and theoretical studies about the Moon’s pole in past decades. Firstly, we introduce the geological features, illuminating conditions and thermal environment on the poles of the Moon. Secondly, we present the geological evolution of ice-bearing regolith and possible forms of water ice. Thirdly, we summarize all the methods of water detection and water distribution on the Moon. Lastly, we propose a basic standard for producing lunar regolith simulants based on measurements of Apollo samples. This study aims to present a general knowledge of lunar polar geology and provide a reference for future lunar polar exploration.
Fabric Simulation and Mechanical Characteristics Test and Analysis of Icy Lunar Regolith
LIU Junwei, WANG Enliang, TIAN Ye, LIU Xingchao, TANG Liang, CUI Jianglei, TAO Lijun, GE Tanlong, LU Zixiao, ZHANG Weiwei, TANG Junyue, JIANG Shengyuan
2022, 9(2): 134-140.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210153
Abstract(136) HTML(10) PDF 2085KB(7)
Abstract:
The remote sensing of the moon proved that water ice exists in its permanently shadowed regions, which further stimulated people's enthusiasm for the construction of lunar bases and in-situ resource utilization. However, remote sensing detection cannot obtain quantitative information about the physical and mechanical properties of icy lunar regolith, which brings challenges to the development of water ice sampling and detection and in-situ utilization. Aiming at this problem, this paper proposes a method to simulate the structure of icy lunar regolith based on "similarity, equivalence, homogeneity and coverage". Tests of shear strength and Poisson's ratio were carried out under realistic temperature environment in polar regions to obtain the influence of temperature and water content on the mechanical properties of icy regolith. At the same time, the envelope range of icy regolith shear strength and Poisson's ratio is obtained under specific conditions. The results provide an basis for designing lunar water ice in-situ submerged detection equipment.
Ground Simulation Test of Penetrator for Lunar Soil Exploration
SUN Miao, ZHANG Hongyu, CHI Runqiang, PANG Baojun, XIAO Junxiao, FAN Jinbiao, QIAN Cheng, LU Zixiao, JIANG Shengyuan
2022, 9(2): 141-149.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210149
Abstract(113) HTML(19) PDF 4832KB(15)
Abstract:
The lunar surface is mostly covered with fine-grained powdered regolith. Penetration tests are carried out on the full-scale penetrator penetrating at 100 ~ 260 m/s into three types of simulated lunar soil samples, to study the impact resistance of penetrator structure and scientific devices, the penetration resistance and identification of different cross-sectional structures, and the perturbation intensity after penetration. The test results show that the penetrator structure was intact and worked well under an overload of about 30 000 g. When the penetrator penetrated the simulated sample target of lunar soil without hard layers, the peak value of the overload after filtering was about 1 000 g. When the penetrator penetrated the simulated samples target of lunar rock or water-ice, the overload peak after filtering was more than five times that of lunar soil without hard layers. The missile-borne recorder could identify the layered samples of different strengths; at the end of the trajectory, the granular simulated sample target within about 20 mm from the penetrator showed disturbance and fragmentation, and the median granular size was reduced by about 70% at most. The lunar surface is usually covered by fine-grained powdered regolith and the penetrator can realize subsurface lunar soil detection. The results will provide the reference for the design of detectors in the fourth phase of lunar exploration project.
SHPB Test of Lunar Water Ice Simulant and Analysis of Reflected Wave Characteristics
XIAO Junxiao, PANG Baojun, TANG Junyue, CHI Runqiang, CHEN Shengpeng, LIU Junwei, TIAN Ye, ZHANG Weiwei, JIANG Shengyuan
2022, 9(2): 150-156.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210154
Abstract(56) HTML(7) PDF 2661KB(6)
Abstract:
For the high-strength lunar water ice fabric, it is usually necessary to use high-frequency percussion drilling and penetrator to achieve in-situ detection. There is a complex dynamic mechanical relationship between the detection equipment and the lunar water ice. The submerged equipment should fully consider the dynamic mechanical properties of the lunar water ice during the design process. This study proposes an experimental method for testing the dynamic mechanical properties of ultra-low temperature lunar water ice simulation samples by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar(SHPB). For three kinds of lunar soil water ice simulants with different water content under extremely low temperature of –170℃, the dynamic mechanical characteristics test was carried out using low temperature SHPB. Through the analysis of the test results, the intensity parameters of the lunar water ice simulants under different strain rates are obtained, and the law of the enhancement effect of the lunar water ice strain rate is summarized; combined with the spectral characteristics of the reflected waves of the SHPB test of samples with different water content rates There are obvious differences in the characteristics, and a method for identifying the water ice content of the lunar regolith based on the characteristics of the impact reflection wave of the drilling tool is proposed. The results provide an effective reference for the development of China's lunar water ice material exploration-collection-using detector system.
Design of Double-Body Vibration Penetration Lunar Soil Sampler by Magnetic Driven
SUN Feng, HUO Xiaowen, MAO Mao, ZHAO Haining, XU Fangchao, ZHANG Weiwei, CHEN Huazhi, TANG Junyue, ZHANG Xiaoyou, LIU Yafang, YANG Xu, JIANG Shengyuan
2022, 9(2): 157-164.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210150
Abstract(20) HTML(7) PDF 2524KB(6)
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A double-body vibration penetration sampling method is proposed, the working principle of the double-body vibration penetration is analyzed and designs two sampler with different magnetic driving modes, and carries out detailed structural design for key parts of the sampler, and obtains the driving force of the sampler through electromagnetic simulation software. Particle unidirectional transport characteristics were investigated using the numerical simulation software of the Discrete Element Method. The driving force of the sampler is verified by experiments and the excavation sampling test of the sampler to simulate loose lunar soil and hard rock of lunar soil is carried out. The results show that the sampler has high excavation rate for simulated loose lunar soil and has decent breaking and excavation ability for simulated hard rock of lunar soil.
Micro Quantitative Sampler for Lunar Regolith: Design and Validation
ZHANG Zhiheng, TANG Junyue, ZHANG Weiwei, SUN Feng, LI Peng, WANG Chu, LIU Ziheng, HE Huaiyu, LIU Ranran, MA Ruqi, JIANG Shengyuan
2022, 9(2): 165-172.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210148
Abstract(21) HTML(5) PDF 2959KB(9)
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Based on the environment and conditions of lunar polar regions, and the actual demand of scientific analysis instrument for regolith samples, a volatile extraction method was proposed, which coupled sampling and volatile extraction. A kind of micro quantitative sampler was designed with some sampling pieces assembled in a sampling tube to complete lunar regolith sampling. After sampling, the sample was placed in the extraction device to be heated, which heated the regolith inside it indirectly and rendered it volatile. In this paper, in view of the requirements of the sampling function of extraterrestrial objects, the working principle and key structural parameters were designed, and the verification test of the performance of lunar regolith micro-sampling was carried out. The results showed that the lower the lunar soil moisture content was, the closer the sampling amount was to the target value. Preliminary heating tests show that the scheme can heat the sample to the target temperature at a specified power. The preliminary heating test shows that the sampler can be used for future in-situ analysis of the volatile of deep space exploration in China.
Research Papers
Control Technology for Unmanned Sampling of Lunar Surface
ZHANG Kuan, YU Tianyi, HU Xiaodong, LIU Chuankai, LI Lichun, ZHAO Huanzhou
2022, 9(2): 173-182.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210052
Abstract(65) HTML(28) PDF 3146KB(18)
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Aiming at the difficulty of accurate controlling the robotic arm, and the complexity of probe - ground cooperation for the Chang’E-5 unmanned lunar surface sampling mission in a finite time period, a new control method and teleoperation mode which improves the efficiency of environmental perception, task planning and verification, fine-turning planning of manipulator end, and control implementation are proposed in this paper. Many technologies are applied into this method, such as establishing quantitative evaluation index system of sampling area to realize sampling points planning, using preplanning methods to complete mission planning and mechanical arm motion control planning, online learning to bring about the fine-tuning path in the manipulator end and analyzing fine-tuning using multi-view fusion images, automatic command based on state and controlling work progress real-time. The implementation results of Chang’E-5 lunar surface sampling mission in orbit indicate that new control method and teleoperation mode can greatly improve the sampling efficiency. It lays a foundation for the Mars and asteroid sample return mission in the future.
X-Band TT&C Design in Launch and Early Orbit Phase for Chang’ E-5
LI Haitao, CHENG Cheng, HUANG Lei, CHEN Shaowu, LI Yubo, QIANG Li, KANG Kai
2022, 9(2): 183-190.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210099
Abstract(69) HTML(8) PDF 2579KB(10)
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Due to advantage of high measurement accuracy and less interfere. X band TT&C had been the main frequency band in lunar and deepspace exploration. Chang’E-5 used X band TT&C in launch phase first time. Compared with S band, X band had the shortage of wider target dynamic range、narrower antenna beam, and shorter system acquisition time. Furthermore Long March 5 rocket used narrow window multi-orbit launch plan. Both of them asked for higher requirements in launch phase quick acquisition, TT&C ship position determination, first acquisition of ground station after separation. In view of the difficulties of narrower ground antenna beam, wider frequency dynamic range and wider receiver bandwidth of explorer in the launch and early orbit phase for Chang’E-5, an overall plan of the X-band was designed by using such methods as analyzing ship position covered by feature points, Doppler preset fast scan capture and cooperated backup of deep-space stations between ESA (European Space Agency) and Kuru, which effectively reduced the risk of implementation and ensured the success of the mission. Chang’E-5 mission has laid a foundation for the overall design and construction planning of the future lunar and deep space TT&C mission.
Collaborative Planning Design of Multi-Targets for Lunar Sampling Return Flight Control Task
PENG Deyun, XIE Jianfeng, ZHAO Fengcai, LIANG Shuang, CHEN Xiang, ZHANG Aicheng
2022, 9(2): 191-201.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210082
Abstract(40) HTML(6) PDF 2686KB(12)
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To deal with the difficulties of complex return flight process, complex coordinated control of four-explorers multi-combination modalities, related combination of multiple constraints and a variety of key intensive controls, a multi-objective collaborative planning for lunar sampling return was proposed in order to ensure that the intensive command arrangement of the multiple objectives and the various types of TT&C resources were coordinated and ordered. In this paper, the inheritance difference between the lunar sampling return and the previous lunar soft landing and near-Earth rendezvous and docking missions was analyzed. A description method of the uplink control relationship between complex multi-objective devices, a multi-objectives measurement and control resource allocation method and a multi-objectives event planning method were designed. The flight control application of Chang’E 5 on-orbit mission shows that the design is reasonable and feasible.
Parallel Design and Implementation of Stereo Vision Algorithm of Zhurong Mars Rover
MAO Xiaoyan, MIAO Zhifu, CHEN Jianxin, LI Zhiping, TENG Baoyi, XING Yan
2022, 9(2): 202-210.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210101
Abstract(116) HTML(9) PDF 2590KB(11)
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Aiming at the problem that the large amount of environmental perception calculation affects the walking efficiency in the rover detection task of celestial bodies outside the earth, the scheme selection, the parallel optimization engineering design and the efficient hardware implementation of stereo vision algorithm were proposed. Through the optimization design of algorithms suitable for parallel implementation, such as one-time look-up table of forward camera model, omitting redundant calculation, 3D point cloud generation and fast filtering, the amount of calculation for stereo vision was significantly reduced. Through the parallel implementation of hardware, the perception efficiency was improved by 8 times compared with that of “Yutu 2” Lunar rover. “Zhurong” Mars rover extensively used the algorithm for autonomous obstacle avoidance and completed a safe and efficient 1km-distance walk. The flight verification results show that the design is safe and effective under unknown environments and resource constraints of celestial bodies outside the earth, and can be used as the cornerstone of subsequent deep space missions.
Design Method of Emergency Orbit Control Strategy for Tianwen-1’s Mars Flyby
LIANG Weiguang, ZHANG Yu, ZHANG Yao
2022, 9(2): 211-216.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210112
Abstract(44) HTML(13) PDF 2068KB(13)
Abstract:
Orbit control strategy was designed for emergency condition of Mars flyby after non-implementation of approach braking. By analyzing acceleration effect of gravity boost during Mars flyby and long-term evolution of the orbit after the flyby, the strategy design was determined from two dimensions of orbital control energy and waiting time. On this basis, several strategies were designed under the branches of energy optimization, time optimization and energy time cost compromise. Advantages and disadvantages of each strategy were quantitatively compared after theoretical analysis and simulation verification. It is concluded that energy optimization and time optimization can be the first choices. The designed emergency strategy guaranteed successful approach braking implementation under control in the first Mars exploration missions of China. Research methods and conclusions can provide technical support and quantitative reference for flight control decisions and emergency control, and can be extended to other planetary exploration missions with similar background.
Spin Deployment Dynamics Simulation of Membrane Solar Sail Based on ANCF
XUE Pengcong, LIU Cheng, SHUI Xiaoping
2022, 9(2): 217-229.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220004
Abstract(56) HTML(28) PDF 5109KB(8)
Abstract:
During the launch process of the membrane solar sail for deep space exploration mission, the membrane structure presents significant asymmetric characteristics under tension and compression. The dynamic behavior of the system shows strong nonlinear characteristics, which brings great challenges to the dynamic modeling and simulation calculation. Based on the Absolute Nodal Coordinate Formulation (ANCF), integrating the tension field theory and the elasticity theory of different moduluses, the accurate tangent stiffness matrix of the element was derived, and a calculation method of ANCF membrane element considering different moduluses was proposed. On this basis, the first kind of Lagrange equation was used to model the dynamics of membrane solar sail, the dynamic equations were solved by the generalized-α algorithm with controllable numerical dissipation, and the influence of different structural design parameters of solar sail on its deployment dynamic characteristics was analyzed. The simulation results verify the stability and efficiency of this method in dealing with space membrane problems, and provide theoretical guidance for the system design of large sail membrane structures.
Simulation Study on Echo of Earth Plasma Layer Detector
XIAO Xiong, JIANG Chunhua, YANG Guobin, ZHAO Zhengyu
2022, 9(2): 230-236.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210127
Abstract(112) HTML(21) PDF 2635KB(5)
Abstract:
Ever of the plasmas layer and layer of magnetic plasma environment detection is mainly based on satellite in place or passive detection means, and spaceborne plasma probe as a way of active detection(active) to send and receive electromagnetic wave echo, to detect the plasma space environment provides a new means of detection, This mode can obtain the distribution structure of electron density along the propagation path in plasma space environment. This article is based on our country has not yet have access to spaceborne Plasma detector measured echo figure, put forward the combined with Plasma GCPM(Global Core Plasma Model)and the ray tracing technique to simulate the electromagnetic waves in plasmas layer and magnetospheric Plasma environment in the communication process. The ray tracing method adopted in this paper is based on the refraction index of cold plasma, considering the effect of magnetic field on the refraction index. This simulation method can obtain the structural characteristics of plasma echo through simulation, which provides a certain reference value for spaceborne plasma detector to obtain the measured plasma echo image. At the same time, it can also provide guidance for the subsequent inversion of electron density profile from measured plasma echo map, and provide important reference for the smooth implementation of deep space exploration and communication engineering.

Founded in 2014, Bimonthly

Supervisor: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology

Sponsor: Beijing Institute of Technology, China Aerospace Society Committee for Deep Space Detection Technology

Editor-in-chief: Wu WeiRen

ISSN 2096-9287CN 10-1707/V

Address: 5 South Zhongguancun Street, Beijing

Telphone: (010)68915831 / 68915834

E-mail: jdse@bit.edu.cn