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Journal of Committee of Deep Space Exploration Technology, Chinese Society of Astronautics(CDSET-CSA)

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Research Advance in Lunar Space Enviornment
WANG Mingyuan, WANG Mei, PING Jinsong, HAN Songtao
 doi: 15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200013
After more than fifty years lunar exploration, our understanding of the lunar space environment is still short. The information of lunar dusty exosphere was given by ARTEMIS mission and the lunar atmosphere and dust environment detector which were developed by NASA. Based on the radio experiments of several lunar missions, the existence of lunar ionosphere is proofed. The current status and observation of lunar exosphere and ionosphere are introduced in this paper. With the help of the low frequency radio astronomical payloads carried by chang'e-4 relay satellite and the lander, more information of lunar space environment will be detected.
A Study of the Orbit Determination Ability and Time-sharing Acquisition Mode for China’s Deep Space Network VLBI Data
NIU Dongwen, DUAN Jianfeng, WANG Mei, CHEN Lue, LU Weitao, REN Tianpeng
 doi: 15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20191120001
According to the interferometric observation data of Jiamusi deep space station and Kashi deep space station of China deep space network during the mission of chang'e-4 prober, the orbit determination accuracy of real-time data and post-correction data respectively combined with the USB data is analyzed. The difference between the Earth Moon transfer section and the precise orbit is 100 meters, and the difference between the ring moon section and the precise ephemeris is 10 meters. At the same time, the influences of VLBI data weight setting on the orbit accuracy is analyzed. In view of theChina deep space network in subsequent deep space missions such as Chang’e 5, a time-sharing acquisition mode is proposed to reduce the amount of VLBI data. The influence of this mode on orbit accuracy is analyzed by using the measured VLBI data of Chang’e 4 prober. The results show that the real-time data accuracy of China’s deep space network VLBI data has reached the accuracy of post-correction data, which can support the follow-up deep space exploration tasks in China. At the same time, for 2 to 3 hours per day of common viewing time of two stations, in the time-sharing acquisition mode, the total 20 minutes per day data and 1 minute acquisition step can ensure that the orbit accuracy does not decrease.
Analytical Initialization For Low-Thrust Trajectory Optimization Based on Switching System
WU Di, CHENG Lin, WANG Wei, LI Junfeng
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200090
The traditional homotopy method usually transforms the low-thrust fuel-optimal control problem into the energy-optimal problem to increase the convergence rate of the indirect method. However, it is still necessary to guess the initial values of the costates to initialize the solving algorithm. In this paper, the optimization model of the fuel-optimal problem is embedded in the switching system with the analytical initial costates, which further improves the convergence rate with the analytical initialization. Firstly, the switching system is introduced with the embedded fuel-optimal problem. The switching function is designed to realize the switching and continuation. Secondly, based on the linearization technique, the target system is designed with analytical initial costates, initializing the solving algorithm by a simple nominal trajectory. Finally, the numerical simulation shows the effectiveness of the proposed method, which is more efficient than the traditional homotopy method.
Articles just accepted have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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2021 Vol.8 No.4 Content
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Topic:Technology of Long March 5 Launch Vehicle (Guest Editor:Professor LI Dong,China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology)
General Scheme and Key Technology of Long March 5 Launch Vehicle
LI Dong, LI Pingqi, WANG Jue, HUANG Bing, LIU Bing
2021, 8(4): 335-343.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210009
Abstract(219) HTML(40) PDF 8533KB(7)
Long March 5 (LM-5) is a new generation of heavy-lift launch vehicle developed by China. It has successfully completed the first Mars exploration of China and the 3rd phase of China lunar exploration program of Chang’E 5 (CE-5). LM-5 experienced 30 years of key technology research and engineering development. During this period, a lot of engineering technical problems were conquered, rich experience in the development of large cryogenic launch vehicle was accumulated, and the development of the new generation launch vehicle system was constructed. The research capability and foundation of carrier rockets have been greatly improved. This paper describes the development background of LM-5. Based on the overall rocket technical scheme and technical innovation, this paper discusses the development thinking of the rocket, the modular configuration scheme, the overall optimization design technology of the whole rocket and the structure technology of the large diameter and large concentrated load rocket body, and probes into the key technical problems of the LM-5 for the deep space exploration mission, specifically, the orbit design and optimization technology for deep space exploration mission, and narrow window multi-orbit launch technology. LM-5 is a landmark project of China’s new generation of launch vehicle, representing the highest level of launch vehicle technology of China, and is a significant symbol for China’s transformation from a major player in space to major power in space.
The Overall Optimization and Design of the Long March 5 Launch Vehicle
LIU Bing, LI Dong, HUANG Bing, HUANG Hui, LI Pingqi
2021, 8(4): 344-353.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210004
Abstract(216) HTML(52) PDF 1065KB(5)
The overall key technical research of the Long March 5 launch vehicle is introduced, such as the optimization design of large low temperature launch vehicle aerodynamic shape, attitude control design of swing booster engine, and large strap-on launch vehicle force and thermal environment analysis method, etc. The overall optimization technology scheme is advanced. New design and simulation technology are adopted and verified through the large ground test. Long March 5 achieves the 14-ton carrying capacity of GTO, and the overall technology reaches the international advanced level of similar launch vehicles. To meet the needs of deep space exploration missions, the overall technical research level of Long March 5 has been optimized and improved.
General Technical Review of Long March 5 Liquid Oxygen Kerosene Engine
CHEN Jianhua, CAO Chen, YANG Yongqiang, LI Miaoting, LIU Yunhao
2021, 8(4): 354-361.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210003
Abstract(99) HTML(41) PDF 1025KB(5)
High pressure staged combustion liquid oxygen kerosene engine is used in the boosters of Long March 5 (LM-5, CZ-5) launch vehicle. The engine adopts high pressure staged combustion cycle, and has the characteristics of high performance, self-starting, wide range of thrust and mixing ratio adjustment and compact structure. In this paper, the development history and technical scheme characteristics of LM-5 launch vehicle’s liquid oxygen kerosene engine are reviewed. The key technologies in the development of the parallel mode engines are analyzed emphatically, such as self-starting ignition technology, large time difference asynchronous shutdown technology and low frequency characteristics of structure in YF-100 engine single mode and two-engine parallel mode. The improvement of performance enhancement, structure lightening, reliability growth and full mission environmental adaptability for YF-100 engine, as well as the demand for high-precision online fault diagnosis system for liquid oxygen kerosene engine, is proposed.
General Scheme and Key Technology of Long March 5 Launch Vehicle Booster
HUANG Shuai, DING Yifan, JIAO Zhen, WANG Chunlin, ZHANG Xinyao
2021, 8(4): 362-371.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210012
Abstract(107) HTML(30) PDF 828KB(5)
The Long March 5(LM-5) series launch vehicle is the new generation large launch vehicle of China, which undertakes China’s lunar exploration project, deep space exploration and other national key projects. LM-5 series launch vehicle booster is the largest booster in China. The booster provides 90% takeoff thrust for the LM-5 launch vehicle. In order to ensure the successful development of the booster, the overall scheme and a number of key technologies of the booster are put forward. The engineering and technical problems of these key technologies are overcome in the development process, which lays a solid foundation and accumulates rich experience for the success of the LM-5 launch vehicle and the large cryogenic launch vehicle. Up to now, LM-5 series launch vehicle boosters have successfully completed flight tests, promoting the development and application of follow-up boosters.
Development of Large Capacity FM Telemetry System for Long March 5 Launch Vehicle
LIN Min, ZHANG Jianing, XU Linfeng, ZHU Wei, REN Ning
2021, 8(4): 372-379.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210040
Abstract(22) HTML(7) PDF 966KB(2)
The telemetry system is responsible for obtaining the telemetry data of the whole rocket flight, which is the key to evaluate the comprehensive performance of the rocket afterwards. This paper introduces the overall scheme and composition of a new generation of large capacity FM telemetry system applied to Long March 5 carrier rocket. Focusing on the problems faced by the application of the key technology of 10 Mbps high bit rate FM telemetry, the technical breakthrough and flight test result are given from the aspects of the application of FM telemetry enhancement technology, the synthesis and transmission of hierarchical baseband data and the high gain antenna feed. Combined with the development process, the development experience and application of a new generation of large capacity FM telemetry system for rockets are summarized.
Structural Design and Optimization of Φ5 m Diameter Large Arrow Body
LUO Hongzhi, GUO Yanming, WU Huiqiang
2021, 8(4): 380-388.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210021
Abstract(73) HTML(28) PDF 945KB(4)
The launch vehicle structure, as one of the important systems of launch vehicle, is the foundation of launch vehicle and directly relates to the overall performance of the launch vehicle. A series of technical problems are faced with the huge leap from Φ3.35 m to Φ5 m in the product size of the launch vehicle structure. To solve these problems, a set of theoretical and methodological system suitable for the design of the Φ5 m launch vehicle structure products is established by adopting innovative design concept. At the same time, the upgrading of the material system of launch vehicle structure is vigorously promoted. With the implementation of these methods, the product system of the Φ5m launch vehicle structure, and the fine design and multi-function integrated design of the Φ5 m launch vehicle structure are realized.
Fault Simulation and Experimental Study on High-Thrust LOX/LH2 Rocket Engine
ZHANG Jian, GONG Yanbo, LIU Zhongshu, WANG Weibin
2021, 8(4): 389-398.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210013
Abstract(24) HTML(7) PDF 1266KB(3)
In order to locate the fault in a test of a high-thrust LOX/LH2 engine, the dynamic characteristic simulation model library of liquid rocket engine is established, and the dynamic characteristic simulation model of the high-thrust LOX/LH2 engine is built. The accuracy of the simulation model is verified by comparing the model with the experimental parameters. According to the possible faults of the engine, the simulation calculation is carried out in turn, and the results are compared with the measured parameters. Through the comparison, it is found that the most likely failure mode is the blockage of the exhaust pipe of the oxygen turbine. The simulation results verified by experiments were in good agreement, which not only proves the accuracy of fault location, but also proves the feasibility of fault location of high-thrust oxyhydrogen engine by dynamic simulation, laying a foundation for further development of fault monitoring and location technology for high-thrust LOX/LH2 rocket engine in the future.
Simulation Study of Forced Circulation Pre-cooling for Hydrogen
HUANG Bing, LI Dong, ZHANG Shujie, YU Ziwen
2021, 8(4): 399-406.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210051
Abstract(15) HTML(5) PDF 1625KB(2)
Due to the low boiling point for cryogenic propellant, the cryogenic rocket engine and delivery pipelines must be fully cooled before startup. Pre-cooling methods largely influence the complexity of the pre-launch rocket test procedure and the adaptability of delayed launch. Therefore, it is needed to comprehensively consider amounts of factors. In this paper, by comparing three pre-cooling methods in detail, selection principles are given. Finally, a model of the forced circulation pre-cooling system for hydrogen is developed with AMESim. According to the system characteristics, it is found that the tank pressure, the speed of the circulating pump and the pressure in the isolated cavity influence the cooling effect. The simulation results show that the pressure difference between the outlet pressure of the circulating pump and the pressure in the isolated cavity is the key factor, and the bigger, the better.
Application and Trend of Model-Based Systems Engineering Methods for Deep Space Exploration Mission
YU Guobin
2021, 8(4): 407-415.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210036
Abstract(12) HTML(10) PDF 586KB(2)
This paper analyzes the present development of Model-Based Systems Engineering(MBSE), the problems and challenges of system engineering for deep space exploration and MBSE, and proposes that the digital engineering ecology is the development direction of the new generation of MBSE for deep space exploration mission. It summarizes the Model-Based System Engineering method framework for deep space exploration mission collaboration. The “four closed loop iteration” process method is proposed to support deep space exploration task collaboration, and the system model system and tool chain platform supporting deep space exploration MBSE are analyzed comprehensively. Based on the characteristics of deep space exploration mission, this paper discusses the collaborative design and continuous verification technology of cross specialty, cross level, cross phase and cross region, as well as the model-based safety and reliability quality management and technical state control technology. Finally, the content points and key trends of the new generation of model-based digital system engineering for deep space exploration are summarized and expected.
Schematic Design of New Generation of Lunar Corner Cube Retroreflector with Single Aperture
HE Yun, HU Zezhu, LI Ming, LIU Qi, YEH Hsienchi
2021, 8(4): 416-422.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20190227003
Abstract(18) HTML(3) PDF 1271KB(3)
A corner cube retroreflector (CCR) with single large aperture for the new generation of Lunar Laser Ranging (LLR) is designed. On the basis of analyzing the current research progress and development trend at home and abroad, the overall design scheme of the single large aperture CCR is introduced, including the design of retroreflector, the scheme of placement on lunar surface, and the environmental testing scheme. It is verified that the 170 mm hollow CCR can realize 68.5% reflecting intensity of ideal Apollo 11 CCR array at 532 nm. This study is anticipated to promote the precision of LLR for a single photon received to millimeter level.
Advances in Space VLF Type Ⅱ Solar Radio Bursts
GAO Guannan, WANG Min, DONG Liang, GUO Shaojie
2021, 8(4): 423-432.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2020.20190222001
Abstract(324) HTML(115) PDF 1010KB(8)
Solar flares and coronal mass ejections(CMEs)are the source disturbances of space weather. The type Ⅱ solar radio burst is the result of electromagnetic radiation caused by CME driven shock moving in corona and interplanetary space. Based on the study of solar physics and space weather forecast, the spectrum characteristics and physical causes of type Ⅱ radio burst, especially VLF type Ⅱ solar radio burst, are analyzed, it shows that VLF type Ⅱ solar radio burst can not only be used to estimate the velocity of CME shock, diagnose the coronal magnetic field, but also provide reference for space weather forecast. The research results can provide useful reference for the scientific research of space VLF radio observation equipment.
Adaptive Control for Space Greenhouse Light Assembly
Y. Berkovich, A. Buryak, O. Ochkov, O. Perevedentsev, S. Smolyanina
2021, 8(4): 433-444.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2020.20191108001
Abstract(131) HTML(51) PDF 668KB(2)
To date, Light Emitting Diodes-based (LED) illuminators are widely used for plants lighting in greenhouses in addition to natural light, as well as in plant factories without natural light. Optimization of artificial lighting parameters, such as the daily light integral and the ratios of different spectral components, can significantly reduce the cost of crop production in light culture including Space Greenhouses (SG) in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). However, the optimization of LED lighting systems is so far limited by the lack of information about the physiological effects caused by narrow-band radiation, as well as the complexity of the mathematical description of plant crops reactions to the changes of LED lighting parameters. In conditions of artificial illumination, crop producers usually strive to establish an optimal light regime that is constant throughout the whole growing season. However, there is experimental data on changes in the requirements for the illumination regime of crops with increasing age of plants. A promising approach to improving the parameters of crops LED lighting is the adaptive method of search engine optimization using biological feedback. The Adaptive Lighting System (ALS) is described on the basis of illuminator with red and white LEDs built at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (Moscow, Russia) for Chinese cabbage cultivation. The adaptive control procedure implements a continuous automatic search for current lighting parameters that provide optimal plant growth characteristics in real time. ALS includes a closed growth chamber with Light Assembly (LA) based on red and white LEDs, equipped with a Gas CO2 Analyzer (GA). The Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) from each type of LEDs can be controlled independently from each other according to the program in the MicroProcessor (MP). Periodically, infrared GA measures the decrease in CO2 concentration inside the growth chamber caused by Visible Photosynthesis (VF) of the crop. MP receives a signal from the GA output and calculates the photosynthesis rate of the crop, as well as the value of the lighting quality functional at the current time. Then the program compares the obtained values of the optimization criterion at the current moment and at the previous step and calculates the direction of the gradient according to picked algorithm and the new values of the LED supply currents, leading to a change in the value of the optimization criterion in the right direction. Further, the power supply unit realizes the currents of LED chains of each type and LA changes the plant lighting mode. As a criterion for the lighting quality in SG we used the minimum specific value of the Equivalent System Mass (ESM), which depends on the plants lighting regime. The cost coefficients of the unit of SG planting area equivalent mass and the unit of electric power consumed by SG significantly depend both on the spacecraft design and on the space expedition scenario. According to the literature, the equivalent system mass estimates depending on the light flux density and the crop light efficiency have been calculated in a spacecraft for the space expedition scenario at a long-term use lunar base with a crew of 4. To search for the current optimal lighting parameters during the plant growth, gradient and simplex algorithms were used. As optimization factors, the integral PPFD incident on the crop at the shoot tips level and the ratio of red and white light flux densities (factors X1 and X2, respectively) were used. Factor X1 was regulated in the range from 200 μmol/(m2·s) to 700 μmol/(m2·s), and factor X2 was from 0 to 1.5. The effectiveness of ALS was evaluated by comparing ESM when using ALS or the best constant LED lighting from comparison experiment. Adaptive optimization of Chinese cabbage crop lighting from the 14th to 24th day of vegetation according to the minimum ESM criterion (1) for the lunar base expedition led to a 14.9% saving in the SG equivalent mass. Similar systems with other optimization criterion can be use for terrestrial plant factories.

Founded in 2014, Bimonthly

Supervisor: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology

Sponsor: Beijing Institute of Technology, China Aerospace Society Committee for Deep Space Detection Technology

Editor-in-chief: Wu WeiRen

ISSN 2096-9287CN 10-1707/V

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