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Design and Verification of TT&C and Data Transmission Integrated System for Tianwen-1 Mars Orbiter
WANG Minjian, ZHU Xinbo, HE Chunli, LI Jinyue, NIU Junpo, YIN Xingfeng, LIU Lingya
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20210090
ITo deal with the problems of ultra-long distance and large dynamic communication under a maximum distance of 400 million kilometers of Tianwen-1 Mars Orbiter, the TT&C and data transmission communication system of Tianwen-1 Mars Orbiter realized high-sensitivity acquisition of -156dbm weak signals and adaptive data transmission and reception under large dynamic conditions through integrated TT&C and data transmission technology of multi-antenna beam shaping, multi bit rate adaptive transmission and reception processing technology, high-sensitivity signal acquisition technology, electromagnetic interference suppression technology under ultra-high sensitivity and high-precision stable pointing technology of large aperture antenna under extremely low temperatures. Except for celestial block, the whole process was 100% covered by the earth communication link and beam, and data transmission rate to the earth was up to 1Mbps at the farthest distance of 400 million kilometers. This technology has been examined and verified in Tianwen-1 Mars exploration mission, and can provide reference for the design and on-orbit work of the TT&C data transmission communication system in subsequent deep space exploration missions.
Planning for Extending Phobos Approaching Mission of Mars Orbiter Tianwen-1: Trajectory Design and Analysis
ZHENG Huixin, XIE Pan, LI Haiyang, ZHU Xinbo
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20220080
In this paper, the mission orbit design and analysis of a potential extended mission, Phobos close approach exploration, was carried out. The state at the end of the main mission was used as the input of the extended mission in this paper. Through analysis, it was concluded that Mars perturbation force could be used to adjust the argument of perigee, and the intersection frequency was related to the value of semi-major axis and eccentricity. Orbit descent maneuver should be performed to increase the number of intersections. As a result, the possibility of conducting aero-braking in order to reduce fuel consumption was analyzed. Finally, phase adjustment maneuver was calculated to complete the Phobos close approach exploration mission. The orbit design results and the velocity increment are given by simulation. The results of this paper can provide reference for orbit design of Tianwen-1 orbiter’s extended missions.
Cognitive Graph for Autonomous Deep Space Mission Planning and Multi-Constraints Collision Detection
LIU Jingxing, WANG Bin, MAO Weiyang, XIONG Xin
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20220064
To deal with the multi-constraints in multi-subsystems coordination mechanism in deep space exploration mission planning, in this paper a cognitive graph architecture and a multi-attributes constraint conflict detection method were proposed for deep space exploration mission planning. In this paper, the graph representation method was adopted to realize knowledge modeling of task planning, the state transition diagram was constructed into triples to realize rule matching during task planning, and a multi-attributes constraint conflict detection algorithm was proposed based on the graph model inference method, so multi-subsystems cognitive reasoning and constraint conflict testing for task planning were realized. Simulation experiments were carried out with different scales of deep space exploration mission planning examples. The experimental results show that compared with genetic algorithm, traditional heuristic algorithm, constrained heuristic algorithm, and evolutionary neural network algorithm, the method proposed in this paper can effectively shorten planning time, and reduce the solution space and memory consumption, effectively improving the success rate and feasibility of deep space exploration mission planning.
Research on Orthogonalization Method of Installation Matrix of Landing IMU for Tianwen-1
FENG Shiwei, LIN Song, LI Yong, XU Lijia, LI Maodeng
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20210155
The IMU of Tianwen-1 is the core product of its navigation system; during the installation of gyro and accelerometer in IMU installation deviation and nonlinear scale factor occur, leading to the non-orthogonality of installation matrix and affecting the accuracy of IMU inertial navigation. In this paper, the orthogonality of gyro and accelerometer installation matrix was analyzed, and the orthogonalization algorithm of installation matrix for row vector was proposed, which improves the orthogonality of gyro and accelerometer installation matrix and reduces the distortion of installation error angle in the process of orthogonalization. The calibration test of IMU inertial navigation under typical working conditions was carried out. The test results show that after the installation matrix was orthogonalized according to row vector, the attitude accuracy of IMU inertial navigation was improved by 15.8%~54.7%, and the position accuracy was improved by 45.2%~85.7%. Adopting the above method, the percentage of static position and attitude performance improvement under various working conditions is consistent and not related to the test time; the percentage of dynamic position and attitude performance improvement under various working conditions is consistent and not related to the cumulative sum of rotation angle.
Whole Link Time Calibration of Mars Orbiter and Launch Day Timing
WANG Sen, ZHU Xinbo, WANG Dongshuo, ZHANG Xuguang, YANG Tongzhi
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20210091
According to design characteristics and configuration of Mars orbiter, the whole link time calibration of mars orbiter was studied and validated, the time transmission path of Mars orbiter was analyzed, and a whole link time calibration method suitable for Mars exploration missions was given. Time calibration of hardware equipment, software design and system configuration was introduced. The actual application results show that the calibration method of the whole link time of Mars orbiter was reasonable, the launch day timing was accurate, and the ground test data were verified by the actual operation in orbit. This paper provides important reference for the design of time calibration system and calibration method for subsequent Mars exploration and related deep space missions.
Research on the thermal design of the propulsion pipeline on the Tianwen-1 Mars Orbiter
ZHANG Yuhua, YANG Jin, SHENG Song, YIN Xingfeng, XU Liang
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20210086
In this article, a method that can solve the problems of thermal design of the pipe that was suitable for the characteristics of space environment of the Mars Probe was proposed. By adopting optimized heating power, suitable number of layers and suitable zone of the heaters, thermal control of the pipeline under complex external heat flow was realized. In the design of propulsion pipeline of Tianwen-1 Mars Orbiter, this method was analyzed and verified, and influencing factors, such as the change of ambient temperature, whether the propulsion pipeline had working fluid, whether it was exposed to the sun, the number of coating layers and heating power, were also analyzed. Research shows that this method had high adaptability to the environment and could adapt to the whole process of the orbiter flight and the conditions of orbit change; more attention should be paid to the number of coating layers and heating power in the future; the extravehicular pipeline was greatly affected by sunlight, exposure to sunlight should be avoided as much as possible in the design process. The research findings above can provide some reference for thermal control design of the propulsion pipeline in subsequent deep space explorations.
Optimal Firing Attitude Design for Mars Probe “Tianwen-1” Braking and Capture
XIN Sibo, XU Liang, ZHAO Xunyou, ZHENG Yiyu, MA Rui
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20220002
To optimize ignition attitude design during Mars capture and braking of China’s first autonomous Mars exploration mission “Tianwen-1”, an analysis idea and a solution under the constraint of the whole vehicle were proposed. Firstly, the trajectory dynamics model in the capture phase was established. According to the pre-capture trajectory and the post-capture target trajectory, optimal thrust direction and ignition time in the orbit plane were solved by Newton iteration method with minimum fuel consumption as optimization objective, and thrust vector was obtained. Combined with illumination and measurement and control constraints of the detector, deflection range around thrust direction was determined. Finally, referring to the layout of star sensors, occlusion of star sensors by celestial bodies at different deflection angles during the whole process was analyzed, and the number of available star sensors and the available duration were calculated. The optimal ignition attitude was determined according to the principle of optimal available duration. The actual on-track braking capture results show that the semi-major axis deviation after track control is less than 947.122 km (semi-major axis variation of 102346.152 km), and the eccentricity deviation is less than 0.0021. At the same time, the whole process can meet the requirements of the whole device for measurement and control and illumination. During the whole acquisition process, at least two star sensors are available at any time, and compared with the telemetry results, the simulation error of the available duration of star sensors is less than 0.225 h.
Navigation, Guidance and Control Technology of Mars Exploration Orbiter Tianwen-1
ZHU Qinghua, WANG Weihua, LIU Fucheng, ZHENG Xunjiang, NIE Qinbo
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20220046
Tianwen-1, China’s first autonomous Mars exploration mission, faced many challenges in the process of interplanetary transfer and orbiting, such as long delay of data transmission between the orbiter and the Earth, many directional constraints during flight, and high requirements for autonomy and reliability. The autonomous navigation based on Mars optical target characteristic measurement, velocity vector control based on thrust direction compensation and angular momentum management based on multi-target pointing reference optimization were proposed. By adaptive edge extraction and accurate edge fitting based on ellipsoidal model for the characteristics of Mars time-varying target, high-precision navigation observation information of the target was obtained, and the accuracy of near-Mars navigation was better than 100 km and that of Mars circumnavigation was better than 2 km. The real-time estimation of thrust direction based on accelerometer measurement and attitude feedforward compensation were used to make the braking capture control accuracy reach the order of millimeter/second. Combined with the multi-target pointing constraint, attitude reference optimization design was carried out with the goal of global optimal jamming torque, to guarantee the autonomous flight control without ground support for more than 30 days. The proposed method was applied to the GNC subsystem of Tianwen-1 surrounding device. The in-orbit flight results of Tianwen-1 show that the proposed method can meet the constraints of autonomous control and autonomous management of interstellar flight, which provides important reference for subsequent deep-space exploration model missions.
Current Situation and Trend of Mars Orbiting Exploration
ZHANG Yuhua, ZHU Xinbo, XIE Pan, XU Liang
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20220008
Based on the mission requirements of Mars orbiting exploration, and the constraints and environmental characteristics of interplanetary transfer and flight around Mars, the main technical difficulties of Mars orbiting exploration missions were analyzed. Based on the mission requirements and functional characteristics of Tianwen-1 orbiter, key technologies and solutions for Mars orbiting exploration were summarized, which mainly include autonomous security control for Mars orbit insert, autonomous management of long solar transit, integration of measurement control and data transmission, and multiple communication rates adaptive relay communication. Then, the development history, trend and innovation of the functions and technologies of the Mars orbiting exploration platform were reviewed, including Mars-to-Earth communication rate, navigation and orbital transformation capability, structural load-carrying and propulsion system. According to the future requirements of Mars exploration, the new capabilities that the orbiting exploration platform needs to develop were analyzed. Finally, the future direction of Mars orbiting exploration was analyzed.
On-orbit Thermal Design and Beam Pointing Error Impact Analysis of High Gain Antenna of Mars Orbiter
ZHANG Shunbo, REN Hongyu, JIN Chunshuai, LIU Weidong, LI Chunhui, LI Yong
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20210089
The technical difficulties on thermal design, suitability under –195℃ ultra-low temperature condition, analysis and verification of beam pointing error caused by thermal distortion for high gain antenna of Mars orbiter were summarized, and relevant design and verification were completed. Based on thermal design state, the temperature field and thermal distortion of high gain antenna under typical working conditions during the operation on orbit were simulated and analyzed. A vacuum thermal distortion measurement system for large aperture reflector antenna was designed and developed. According to vacuum thermal distortion test data, the beam pointing error was evaluated by a hybrid simulation method. The results show that the maximum beam pointing error is 0.028°, and the gain loss is less than 0.5dB, both of which are within the design margin. The on-orbit test results confirm that the beam pointing performance is consistent with the evaluation, which effectively verifies the accuracy of the thermal design and verification method.
Tianwen-1 Radio Occultation Observation Experiment and Feature Analysis
CHEN Lue, WANG Mei, JIAN Nianchuan, MAN Haijun, HAN Songtao, KONG Jing, GUO Peng, PING Jinsong
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2023.20220006
China’s Tianwen-1 probe orbiting Mars provides necessary conditions for Mars-to-Earth Mars radio occultation observation, and can effectively support the exploration of Mars atmosphere and ionosphere retrieval. In this paper, the first domestic Mars radio occultation observation experiment based on Tianwen-1 was introduced. Firstly, Tianwen-1 was used to forecast the orbit and the occultation observation arc of the ground deep space station. Then, deep space stations were organized to observe the entire process of Tianwen-1 Mars occultation, and the original downlink signals of the probe were sampled and recorded. Finally, the self-developed deep space open-loop measurement software was used to process and analyze the downlink signals of Tianwen-1, to extract the radio occultation features of Mars. The results show that the amplitude diffraction speckles and frequency warping features in the signal were successfully extracted, which confirms that the Mars-to-Earth Mars radio occultation event has been effectively observed, and important technical experience and measurement data have been accumulated for subsequent scientific research on Mars atmospheric exploration based on Tianwen-1.
Research on Foot-Soil Slipping Performance of Footed Robot in Soft Geology on Lunar Surface
ZHONG Shiying, YUE Qianqian, LING Daosheng, ZHOU Hao, HAN Runqi, CONG Bori
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220036
Mobile robot is the backbone of the way of the lunar exploration, its foot end force is an important parameter for gait control. In order to study the effect of foot pattern design on foot-soil interaction in loose lunar soil on the anti-slip performance of the foot end, the anti-slip performance of three foot end pattern configurations was studied: triangle, arc and rectangle. The anti-slip performances of different pattern configurations under the same vertical load were studied through numerical simulation, and the anti-slip parameters of each pattern configuration were obtained through the equivalence principle. The results show that before the foot end pattern is completely pierced into the lunar soil, the circular arc pattern has the smallest settlement amount under the same vertical load, followed by the rectangular pattern with the triangular pattern having the largest settlement amount pattern under the same vertical load. At the same time, the slippage and stress peak of the circular arc pattern are also minimal. Under the anti-slip model of foot-soil contact surface, the equivalent shear strength of the rectangular pattern is the greatest when the same amount of subsidence is the largest, the equivalent friction angle is 33.44°, and the cohesion force 2.58 kpa, the circular arc pattern is the smallest, and its equivalent friction angle is 30.16° and the cohesion force 2.48 kpa.
An Autonomous Planning Method for Deep Space Exploration Tasks in Reinforcement Learning Based on Dynamic Rewards
MAO Wei-yang, WANG Bin, LIU Jing-xing, XIONG Xin
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220049
Aiming at the characteristics of multi-system parallelism and the need to meet various constraints in the process of autonomous mission planning of deep space detectors, this paper proposes a reinforcement learning task autonomous planning model construction method for deep space detectors based on dynamic rewards, and establishes a deep space detector agent. In the interactive environment, a policy network and a loss function integrating resource constraints, time constraints and timing constraints are constructed, and a dynamic reward mechanism is proposed to improve the traditional policy gradient learning method. The simulation results show that the method in this paper can realize autonomous task planning. Compared with the static reward policy gradient algorithm, the planning success rate and planning efficiency are significantly improved, and the method can start planning in any state without changing the model structure, which improves the accuracy of the algorithm. Determine suitability for planning tasks. This method provides a new solution for autonomous mission planning and decision-making of deep space probes.
Spectroscopic Study of Aqueous Alteration of Asteroids Based on Carbonaceous Chondrites
YU Jinfei, ZHAO Haibin, WU Yunzhao
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220077
The aqueous alteration spectral features of carbonaceous chondrites for were studied for future volatile-rich asteroids exploration and remote sensing. The 1-20 μm infrared spectral features and petrographic characteristics of 15 carbonaceous chondrites with different alteration degrees were analyzed, and the spectral variation laws of the aqueous alteration were summarized. The findings demonstrate that as the degree of alteration of carbonaceous chondrites increases, the 3 μm absorption band, which indicates phyllosilicates and water molecules, and the 6 μm absorption band, which indicates only water molecules, both features increasing in strength and absorption centers shift to the short-wave. With more alteration, the 3 μm absorption band sharpens and resembles serpentine’s 3 μm absorption feature. However, as the degree of alteration increases, the 6 μm absorption band shape does not significantly change. The degree of alteration also affects the spectral shape of the 10-13 μm region. This region indicates silicate features. The 12.4 μm /11.4 μm reflectance ratio reduces as a result of the conversion of anhydrous silicates to phyllosilicates. Also discuss possible effects that the spectra and parameters discovered during this study may have on the outcomes from asteroids.
Accuracy Mast Pointing Control Method for Multi-Spectral Camera Exploration of Mars Rover
LU Hao, ZHANG Hui, ZHANG Zhen, YU Tianyi, CUI Xiaofeng, HU Xiaodong, FEI Ligang
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220007
Planning and control for scientific exploration is one of the key technologies for rover teleoperation. Multi-spectral camera that can detect components in coals and rocks on Mars is mounted on the mast of Zhurong Mars Rover. To achieve the goal of accuracy pointing to particular target, an accurate method to calculate angles of mast joints was proposed. The iterative solution method of mast control parameters and the working flow of rover target detection were designed. The error analysis of the method was conducted. Through the practice of China's first Mars exploration mission, the method is satisfied the demands for detection for narrow-field-of-view multi-spectral camera.
Articles just accepted have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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2022 Vol.9 No.6 Content
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2022, 9(6).  
Abstract(28) PDF 18592KB(24)
Topic: Construction of Lunar Research Station’s ( Professor YU Dengyun, China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation;Professor WANG Dayi, Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering;Professor WANG Yongfu, Qian Xuesen Laboratory of Space Technology, China Academy of Space Technology)
Research on Building Plans Design for Future China Lunar Base
MEI Hongyuan, BAO Weimin, YU Dengyun, LIU Pengyue, WANG Youshan, PAN Wente, CHEN Yu, LI Jiayang, GAO Yiting, FEI Teng
2022, 9(6): 553-559.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210061
Abstract(287) HTML(62) PDF 3432KB(93)
In this article, the general principles of lunar building, including demand-orientation, intensive planning module extension, in-situ utilization, and Earth-Moon combination were discussed. Based on the two different construction environments of the moon surface and the moon pit, the “Clover” and the “Red Star” lunar building schemes were systematically proposed, and main key construction technologies needed to be broken through in advance were provided.
Landing Site Selection Method of Lunar South Pole Region
RAO Wei, FANG Yue, PENG Song, ZHANG Hong, SHENG Liyan, MA Jinan
2022, 9(6): 571-578.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220072
Abstract(104) HTML(32) PDF 2947KB(35)
Landing site selection is an important part of the design of an exploration mission. The correctness of site selection result directly determines whether the detector can successfully complete the mission, and also determines the important basis for the design of each sub-system in the program design process. In this paper, the site selection method of the lunar south pole exploration landing area was introduced, the topography and illumination characteristics of the lunar south pole were analyzed, the principle of site selection was formulated, the influencing factors and constraints of site selection were analyzed in detail, and introduces the engineering the site selection method using coarse-to-precise strategy, combined with the site selection results, and 5 landing sites were selected initially, which will provide reference for the design of future lunar exploration missions.
Topic: Construction of Lunar Research Station's
Research on Artificial Intelligence Technology for Lunar Scientific Research Station
ZHANG Zhe, QIN Tong, SHI Yishuai, QIAO Dong, JIAN Kangkang, CHEN Hui, ZHANG Tianzhu, XU Rui, JIN Xiao
2022, 9(6): 560-570.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220099
Abstract(263) HTML(80) PDF 2029KB(41)
The construction of a lunar scientific research station is an inevitable mean for carring out in-depth lunar scientific exploration and realizing the large-scale development and utilization of lunar resources. Restricted by the depth of human cognition of the Moon and the development level of existing space technology, the implementation of the task of building a lunar scientific research station still faces many technical difficulties. At present, with the in-depth research of artificial intelligence technology and the rapid development of its integrated application in various fields, new ideas have been brought to solve the above technical problems. In the paper the construction concept, system composition, mission characteristics and technical challenges faced by the lunar scientific research station were analyzed. On this basis, artificial intelligence technologies such as intelligent fusion perception, collaborative control, path planning, fault detection, decision planning and human-computer interaction etc. in these typical application scenarios were discussed, which will provide reference for the implementation of for the construction of lunar scientific research stations and manned Moon landing missions.
Scheme Design and Key Technology Research of Distributed Energy System for Lunar Scientific Research Station
LIU Yihong, ZHANG Ming, YANG Yi, LIU Zhi
2022, 9(6): 579-588.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220073
Abstract(122) HTML(35) PDF 2387KB(45)
In view of the harsh environment of low temperature and low light in the lunar polar region, as well as the long-term observation mission requirements of the lunar scientific research station, combined with the composition and construction objectives of the lunar scientific research station, a set of muti-type distributed energy system architecture was proposed. By adopting standardized, modular and scalable design concepts a solar energy system based on nuclear reactor power generation and photovoltaic power generation, and a medium-sized energy system based on isotope power generation and photovoltaic power generation, and a small energy system based on intelligent battery packs were built to achieve long-life, high-power, highly reliable, stable and continuous power supply, solve the problems of large power level span and numerous power types were solved, and the long-term stable supply demand of energy for lunar scientific research station was met. At the same time, the wired grid connected power supply technology and wireless energy transmission technology were adopted to realize energy sharing and power expansion among various energy systems. The multi-channel energy management method based on hierarchical management was adopted to solve the energy balance problem between the top, middle and bottom levels involved in independent health management of energy, and the mission support ability of the lunar scientific research station was enhanced.
Research on Lunar Four-Way Relay Measurement Mode of Orbit Determination and Positioning Method
WANG Chongyang, LI Xinyi, XIONG Liang, ZHOU Huan, YE Mao, YAN Jianguo
2022, 9(6): 589-595.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220040
Abstract(62) HTML(18) PDF 2194KB(19)
To deal with the limitation of the measurement and control link caused by occlusion in the detection in the lunar south polar region, a scheme of simultaneously applying two four-way relay measurement models was designed and the role of two-way and four-way measurement models in the lunar probe orbit determination and positioning in terms of the combination of observations and noise level was analyzed, The results show that simultaneous application of the two four-way models has better constraints on the orbiting accuracy of the two satellites, the relay satellite is more sensitive to the noise of the two-way model, the noise sensitivity of the low-orbit satellite and the lander is related to the number of four-way observations, and the positioning accuracy of the lander is related to the orbiting accuracy of the two satellites, which can provide a reference for the application of the relay measurement model in the fourth phase of the lunar exploration project.
Conceptual Design of Lunar Surface In-Situ Resource Supply Station
WANG Chao, PENG Qibo, WANG Shenquan, WANG Qinggong, YAO Wei
2022, 9(6): 596-605.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220071
Abstract(141) HTML(44) PDF 9090KB(36)
According to the requirements of major engineering tasks such as manned lunar landing, lunar base construction and lunar scientific research, the in-situ resource utilization technology was used to build a lunar surface resource supply station with certain material and energy supply capacity and break through key technologies such as in-situ water ice photo-thermal extraction, in-situ oxygen production, in-situ energy storage and power generation, and in-situ construction of the lunar surface, so as to realize the construction of residential protective cabins necessary for astronauts' lunar presence and activities and in-situ acquisition and supply of water oxygen, fuel and other materials, as well as light, heat, electricity and other energies, which will promote the development of China's lunar scientific research and development activities, and gradually realize lunar surface settlement and scientific research ability free from dependence on Earth's supply dependence.
Experimental Study on Cutting Load of Simulated Lunar Soil Containing Ice
ZHAO Yu, JI Jie, TIAN Ye, DUAN Zhangqing, ZHANG Weiwei
2022, 9(6): 606-616.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220078
Abstract(150) HTML(42) PDF 4531KB(15)
The fourth phase of the lunar exploration project is planning to carry out lunar soil water ice drilling mission in the permanently shadowed area of the south pole of the Moon. It is of great significance to obtain the mechanical-soil mechanical properties of soil water ice in the deep low temperature environment for the development of mining and exploration tools. Facing the new research object of lunar soil water ice, simulated lunar soil with similar mineral composition and particle size to polar lunar soil water ice was prepared in this paper for cutting test. The liquid nitrogen bath cutting load test platform was first developed and the cutting test conditions of deep-low temperature lunar soil water ice simulators were established. On this basis, the cutting load tests of lunar soil water ice simulators were carried out. The cutting load data under different cutting depth, different sample temperatures and different sample water content were obtained, which can provide reference for the development of drilling sampling machine.
Study of Drilling-Based Water Extraction Technology from Icy Lunar Regolith
WANG Qinggong, WANG Chao, PANG Yong, QUAN Xiaojun, YAO Yingfang, LAI Xiaoming, YAO Wei
2022, 9(6): 617-624.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220067
Abstract(91) HTML(38) PDF 2993KB(20)
Water is the most important resource for in-situ resource utilization(ISRU)in future deep space exploration. To solve the fundamental problems of water ice exploitation and utilization in extraterrestrial planets, an integrated method of soil drilling and water extraction from icy lunar regolith was proposed in this paper. A pilot-scale experimental facility is developed where a cryogenic environment is built in a vacuum chamber. The full processes for water extraction are studied, including soil drilling, photo-thermal heating, vapor condensation and water decomposition. Correspondingly, four key components are fabricated, including a sealed, drilling device, a photo-thermal heating device, a vapor condensation and droplet collection device, and an electro-catalysis water decomposition device. A systematical study is performed in the pilot-scale facility. The integrated procedure of water extraction and utilization is well operated. The drilling process transports the lunar regolith at a speed over 1.7 kg/h with a low power consumption of less than 100 W. The water extraction rate is about 26.6 g/h when the water content of lunar regolith is 6%, while the total gas flow rate in the electro-catalysis device is 12.6 g/h. This study validates the reliability of drilling-based thermal water extraction technology from lunar regolith in cryogenic condition, which can be referenced for future engineering programs.
Research on the Lidar Positioning Method of Lunar Rover Based on Landmark Re-Observation
LI Shuo, YU Meng, CAO Tao, ZHENG Bo, HU Tao
2022, 9(6): 625-632.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220090
Abstract(122) HTML(63) PDF 7892KB(29)
In future lunar surface roaming and inspection missions, considering the some adverse factors on the lunar surface, such as rugged road conditions, lack of structured scenes, poor surface texture and so on, a method of active re-observation of historical landmarks was proposed to improve positioning accuracy of lunar rover lidar. Firstly, the significance of the point cloud landform in the current detection field was studied and judged at the fixed time, and re-observed landmarks were extracted. The trigger time of re-observation was determined according to the position and attitude estimation of the real-time monitoring inspector. Finally, point cloud matching algorithm was used to obtain the accurate position and attitude. Simulation results show that the active re-observation method fuses the historical position and attitude estimation of the system with uses the historical position and attitude estimation of the system with current observations, suppresses data drift caused by noise, and improves positioning accuracy of the lunar rover.
Rotating Cables Design Method of “Tianwen-1” Mars Landing Rover
YANG Yi, LIU Yihong, WANG Jing, WU Lequn, ZHANG Xiaofeng, HAN Yue, ZHANG Xiuhong
2022, 9(6): 633-640.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20220081
Abstract(83) HTML(28) PDF 2909KB(20)
The external cables of Mars landing rover faces the extreme temperature, after “Tianwen-1” Mars landing rover lands on the surface of Mars. In allusion to cables would harden at low temperature, the materials of electric couplers and wires more easily damage when rotating at low temperature, the experiment method of low temperature adaptability of rotating cables is designed, to verify the adaptability and rotating performance of cables at Mars low temperature. The experimental results have testified that the cable assembly including electric couplers, wires and auxiliary materials are structurally integrated and electrically reliable after rotating at low temperature of Mars. Furthermore, the cables of spacecraft have experienced in-orbit flight, and have further evidenced the availability of this experiment method, and provide experiment method and technical support for the adaptability of cables to complex thermal environments of subsequent deep-space exploration.

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Sponsor: Beijing Institute of Technology, China Aerospace Society Committee for Deep Space Detection Technology

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