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Overview on Development of Plantary Rover Technology
JIA Yang, SUN Zezhou, ZHEN Yang, LI Haifei, TAO Zhuo, ZHANG Tianyi, TIAN He
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200031
Patrol detection is an important form of deep space exploration. The planetary rover, which can move on the surface of solid-state planet and complete the tasks of exploration, sampling and transit, has many functions, such as expanding the scope of fine detection on planet surface, overcoming the impact of landing accuracy, reducing the workload of astronauts and so on. The technical development of lunar rover, Mars rover and others are reviewed focusing on the development of locomotion technology, navigation control technology, autonomous and intelligent technology, thermal control technology, ground test verification technology, remote operation technology, and the development trend of rover technology is analyzed.
Seed and Vegetative Propagation of Plants in Microgravity
Elizabeth Kordyum, Olena Hedukha, Olga Artemeko, Galyna Ivanenko
A short review of the available data on plant development, seed-to-seed, and next generations, and formation of generative and vegetative organs in real and simulated microgravity is presented. It is emphasized the timeliness of the emergence of plant space reproductive biology and its importance for progress in space agriculture that is necessary for future human exploration of space.
Research Status and Development Trend of Bio-regenerative Life Support System for Deep Space Exploration
LIU Hong, YAO Zhikai, FU Yuming
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20191021001
Bio-regenerative life support system (BLSS), is one of key technologies for long-term and long-distance manned space missions such as manned Mars landing and the establishment of lunar and Mars bases. The theories and technologies of BLSS are summarized. Countries and organizations including Russia, USA, Europe, Japan and China have conducted a series of research in BLSS, from bio-unit test, systematic test to manned closed experiment and aquatic micro-ecosystem experiments in space. The development path of BLSS is proposed, and it points out that small-scale terrestrial ecosystem is the key part for the application of BLSS to space. The tendency and ground application prospect of technologies derived by BLSS are analyzed as well.
Research Advances of Solar Radio Type Ⅲ Bursts at Space Very Low Frequencies
TAN Baolin, TAN Chengming, HUANG Jing, CHNEN Linjie
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20190227002
Solar flares and coronal mass ejections (CME) are the most powerful explosions in the solar system, which may generate three kinds of strong attacks with violent disturbance in the interplanetary space: bursts of electromagnetic waves, magnetized plasma clouds, and great number of non-thermal high-energy particles. When such disturbances propagate to the space near the Earth, they will create serious perturbations in the terrestrial space and greatly affect the safe operations of various kinds of high-tech systems in our society. Among the three strong attacks, the non-thermal high-energy particles are the one of the main triggering sources of the disastrous space weather events. The main observational behavior of the non-thermal high-energy particles is radio Type III bursts with fast frequency drifting rate. However, when the non-thermal high-energy particle flows are flying in the interplanetary space beyond about 5-10 solar radii, the background plasma will become very tenuous and the emission frequency is below 30 MHz (generally called as space very low frequency, SVLF) which will escape from the observation and tracking of all ground-based solar radio telescopes. The space-based or lunar-based solar SVLF spectral polarimeter can observe solar radio type III bursts at frequency of 0.1-80 MHz with high temporal and spectral resolutions, and can detect and track the propagation and evolution of the non-thermal high-energy particle streams produced by the solar eruptions. These observations may provide robust support for the predictions of the disastrous space weather events. In this paper, the main research advances and the existing problems of radio Type III bursts at SVLF are introduced, and the main scientific objectives of the space-based or lunar-based solar SVLF spectral polarimeter are discussed.
Adaptive Control for Space Greenhouse Light Assembly
Yu. Berkovich, A. Buryak, O. Ochkov, O. Perevedentsev, S. Smolyanina
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20191108001
To date, Light Emitting Diodes-based (LED) illuminators are widely used for plants lighting in greenhouses in addition to natural light, as well as in plant factories without natural light. Optimization of artificial lighting parameters, such as the daily light integral and the ratios of different spectral components, can significantly reduce the cost of crop production in light culture including Space Greenhouses (SG) in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). However, the optimization of LED lighting systems is so far limited by the lack of information about the physiological effects caused by narrow-band radiation, as well as the complexity of the mathematical description of plant crops reactions to the changes of LED lighting parameters. In conditions of artificial illumination, crop producers usually strive to establish an optimal light regime that is constant throughout the whole growing season. However, there is experimental data on changes in the requirements for the illumination regime of crops with increasing age of plants. A promising approach to improving the parameters of crops LED lighting is the adaptive method of search engine optimization using biological feedback. The Adaptive Lighting System (ALS) is described on the basis of illuminator with red and white LEDs built at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (Moscow, Russia) for Chinese cabbage cultivation. The adaptive control procedure implements a continuous automatic search for current lighting parameters that provide optimal plant growth characteristics in real time. ALS includes a closed growth chamber with Light Assembly (LA) based on red and white LEDs, equipped with a Gas CO2 Analyzer (GA). The Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) from each type of LEDs can be controlled independently from each other according to the program in the MicroProcessor (MP). Periodically, infrared GA measures the decrease in CO2 concentration inside the growth chamber caused by Visible Photosynthesis (VF) of the crop. MP receives a signal from the GA output and calculates the photosynthesis rate of the crop, as well as the value of the lighting quality functional at the current time. Then the program compares the obtained values of the optimization criterion at the current moment and at the previous step and calculates the direction of the gradient according to picked algorithm and the new values of the LED supply currents, leading to a change in the value of the optimization criterion in the right direction. Further, the power supply unit realizes the currents of LED chains of each type and LA changes the plant lighting mode. As a criterion for the lighting quality in SG we used the minimum specific value of the Equivalent System Mass (ESM), which depends on the plants lighting regime. The cost coefficients of the unit of SG planting area equivalent mass and the unit of electric power consumed by SG significantly depend both on the spacecraft design and on the space expedition scenario. According to the literature, the equivalent system mass estimates depending on the light flux density and the crop light efficiency have been calculated in a spacecraft for the space expedition scenario at a long-term use lunar base with a crew of 4. To search for the current optimal lighting parameters during the plant growth, gradient and simplex algorithms were used. As optimization factors, the integral PPFD incident on the crop at the shoot tips level and the ratio of red and white light flux densities (factors X1 and X2, respectively) were used. Factor X1 was regulated in the range from 200 μmol/(m2·s) to 700 μmol/(m2·s), and factor X2 was from 0 to 1.5. The effectiveness of ALS was evaluated by comparing ESM when using ALS or the best constant LED lighting from comparison experiment. Adaptive optimization of Chinese cabbage crop lighting from the 14th to 24th day of vegetation according to the minimum ESM criterion (1) for the lunar base expedition led to a 14.9% saving in the SG equivalent mass. Similar systems with other optimization criterion can be use for terrestrial plant factories.
Advances in Space VLF Type II Solar Radio Bursts
GAO Guannan, WANG Min, DONG Liang, GUO Shaojie
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20190222001
Solar flares and coronal mass ejections(CMEs)are the source disturbances of space weather. The type II solar radio burst is the result of electromagnetic radiation caused by CME driven shock moving in corona and interplanetary space. Based on the study of solar physics and space weather forecast, the spectrum characteristics and physical causes of type II radio burst, especially VLF type II solar radio burst, are analyzed, it shows that VLF type II solar radio burst can not only be used to estimate the velocity of CME shock, diagnose the coronal magnetic field, but also provide reference for space weather forecast. The research results can provide useful reference for the scientific research of space VLF radio observation equipment.
CZ-8: The Forerunner of Long March Rocket Series on the Innovations of Commercialization and Intelligence
SONG Zhengyu, WU Yitian, XU Shanshu, CHEN Xiaofei, XIAO Yun
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200009
This paper reviews the latest innovations of the Long March 8(LM-8)launch vehicle. The launcher fully inherits the achievements of Chinese in-service and new generation rockets, and focuses on launching satellites to the sun-synchronous orbit(700-1000 km), taking into account the launch services for LEO and GTO satellites. LM-8 is available in both combinatorial and integrative configurations for a variety of missions. In order to enhance market competitiveness, a series of innovative practices have been taken, including agile manufacturing, system integration, responsive launch, autonomous and unattended operation, and simplified launch site infrastructure. In response to the future trend of intelligent rocket, LM-8 actively explores the autonomous technologies such as onboard dynamic trajectory planning, active control of take-off drift, and automated launch window correction. It also paves the way for reusable launcher in steps, conducts the demonstration for vertical landing with side and core boosters strapped together, and makes progresses in large-scale light landing mechanism, autonomous guidance method, etc. These innovations forge the LM-8 into a cost effective, easily handled, and highly reliable and safe launch vehicle.
Modeling and Simulation for Power Generation of Solar Array in Martian Surface Environment
SHI Haiping, CHEN Yan, YIA Yang, QU yuan, LIU Zhigang, WANG Wenqiang, PENG Song
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200042
The environments are very different between Martian Surface and near-earth space. To estimate the output power of the Solar Array on the Mars surface is not easy, which is affected by the solar radiation, temperature, dust and diffuse irradiance. A method to calculate the output power of Solar Array in Martian Surface Environment is proposed in this paper based on a survey to the results of research all over the world. Models about how the illumination, temperature and dust to affect the power generation of the Solar Array on Martian surface are established. Those numeric models and method are used to improve the power balance of the Mars Rover in the first Mars exploration mission of china and are a reference for the intending Mars and other deep-space exploration missions.
Study and Verification on Deployment Strategy of Transfer Ramps for Mars Rover
YAN Qingqing, LIU Wei, MAN Jianfeng, ZHU Ma, ZHOU Dong, LIU Xue
In view of a limited kind of drawout-expanded ramps, and in order to realize two transfer channels for Mars rover, considering all kinds of faults that could be occurred in orbit, and without changing the original mechanism, a two-way optional autonomous deployment strategy is carried out in this paper, . The whole process of the strategy is verified one by one in the joint test of transfer ramps and data management software, all telemetry parameters are normal, the system sequence is executed correct, the results show that the autonomous deployment strategy of transfer ramps is effective and reliable, which provides a strong guarantee for the successful transfer of Mars rover to the surface.
2020 Vol.7 No.4 Content
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Topic:Very Long Baseline Interferometry Technology
Research Progress of VLBI Technology and Application to China Lunar Exploration Project
HONG Xiaoyu, ZHANG Xiuzhong, ZHENG Weimin, WANG Guangli, LIU Qinghui, WANG Na, ZHANG Hongbo, WANG Min, SHU Fengchun
2020, 7(4): 321-331.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200030
Abstract(123) HTML(46) PDF 655KB(22)
The Unified S-Band (USB) measurement and control system with ranging and velocity measurement capabilities and the VLBI system with high precision angle measurement capabilities are jointly used to undertake the orbit determination for the missions. The measurement accuracy is increasing constantly. The orbit determination for Chang'E-1、Chang'E-2、Chang'E-3、Chang'E-4 and Chang'E-5 test spacecraft missions have been completed successfully. It has made important contributions to CLEP and laid a solid foundation for the subsequent exploration of the Moon and planets.
High-Precision VLBI Orbit Measurement Technology in the Chang'E-4 Mission
WANG Guangli, HONG Xiaoyu, LIU Qinghui, LI Bin, MA Jun, SU Yan, HAO Longfei
2020, 7(4): 332-339.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200026
Abstract(188) HTML(135) PDF 1517KB(20)
Chang'E-4(CE-4)achieved the soft landing and patrol survey on the far side of the Moon for the first time in the world. The S-band ΔDOR measurement technology is used in the relay satellite mission, and the new S-band ΔDOR observation data processing system is developed. During the prober mission, the VLBI system realized fast time-sharing observations for the relay satellite and lander-rover combination prober for the first time; and the Tianma radio telescope is used to calibrate the relay satellite antenna in orbit. Considering the characteristics of CE-4, the key technical issues to be solved by the VLBI technology are analyzed, and specific measures are proposed. The analysis of the measurement results during the real-time mission of the two spacecraft show that these technical measures play important roles in the accomplishment of mission goals.
Contribution of VLBI for the Orbit Determination to Chinese Lunar Exploration Project
HUANG Yong, LI Peijia, HU Xiaogong
2020, 7(4): 340-346.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200022
Abstract(27) HTML(8) PDF 439KB(19)
The S/X-band radiometric range/Doppler and very long baseline interferometry(VLBI)techniques are used in Chinese lunar exploration to track the probe. Measurement accuracy is improved for the application of new equipment and techniques. VLBI data plays a very important role in the orbit determination(OD)and lander positioning. VLBI data can improve short arc OD accuracy comparing with the range/Doppler data only. For the lunar orbit, Combining VLBI data helps to improve orbit accuracy especially in along-track and normal directions. Results also indicate that VLBI data contribute more to the OD when the probe is at the edge-on view than at the face-on view. Overlap analysis shows that the position consistency is about 20 m and better than 3 m in the radial direction for CE-3/CE-4 lunar orbit. The statistical positioning method is applied to determine the position for the CE-3 lander combined with 1 h range and VLBI data, and the accuracy is better than 50 m compared to the result of LRO camera.
S/X Cryogenic Receiver Technology for VLBI Satellite Tracking
LI Bin, ZHONG Weiye, WANG Shengwang, ZHANG Lijun, LIANG Shiguang
2020, 7(4): 347-353.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200029
Abstract(148) HTML(73) PDF 969KB(17)
The high sensitivity cryogenic receiver is the important equipment to improve the measurement accuracy of the satellite tracking for Chinese Lunar Exploration Project. The low noise amplifiers of front end are cooled to 15 Kelvin. The equivalent noise temperature of cryogenic receiver is one order of magnitude lower than the traditional equipment working at room temperature, greatly improving the sensitivity of radio telescope. Several advanced technologies have been adopted to simultaneously realize highly sensitive dual-band observations on the same target, including S/X dual-band feed horn, cryogenic low noise amplifier based on HEMT, cryogenic polarizer and low temperature superconducting filter. The measured receive noise of S-band is 8 K in the frequency range 2.19~2.3 GHz, and the system noise is 53 K at zenith. The measured receiver noise of X-band is 13 K in the frequency range 8.2~9.0 GHz, and the system noise temperature is 32 K at zenith. The S/X cryogenic receivers have been applied successfully for VLBI satellite tracking in Chinese Lunar Exploration Project.
Real-Time Correlator Technologies of VLBI
ZHENG Weimin, ZHANG Juan, XU Zhijun, LIU Lei, TONG Li, ZHANG Xiuzhong
2020, 7(4): 354-361.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200027
Abstract(141) HTML(56) PDF 793KB(10)
Real-time correlator is the core facility of data processing center of China’s Lunar Exploration Project (CLEP) VLBI subsystem. Software and hardware ones are developed to ensure the successful tracking in all CLEP missions by the main and standby operation mode. The software correlator is a specially designed parallel computing program which runs on a high performance cluster server platform. The hardware one is a special high speed signal correlator based on a FPGA platform. They all adopt FX type structure, with real-time data receiving, decoding, correlation processing, phase correction signal extraction, real-time monitoring and other functions. When the accuracy of the prediction delay model is not enough, the correlator can reconstruct the delay model automatically by the special fringe search module and the processor is guided to complete the related processing of the detector signal. After engineering verification, the real-time data rate of the Lunar probe VLBI measurement orbit reached 512 Mbps.
Ionospheric TEC Correction for VLBI Based on GNSS Density Network
ZHOU Weili, SONG Shuli, LI Peijia, ZHANG Zhibin, HUANG Chao, HUANG Yong, WANG Guangli
2020, 7(4): 362-370.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200056
Abstract(19) HTML(4) PDF 1128KB(12)
Very long baseline interferometry(VLBI)is one of the key technologies for orbit determination of Chang'-E satellites in China's lunar exploration project. Ionospheric delay is one of the main errors of VLBI orbit determination. The ionospheric delay correction method based on GNSS inversion is given, which is used in the Chinese VLBI Network. Because there are few stations of international GNSS service(IGS)in China, in order to meet the demand of lunar exploration, more stations are will be builtin China and a new global ionospheric correction model(SHAO)is constructed. Compared with the CODE model, the maximum difference of ionospheric delay Root Mean Square Error(RMSE)on CVN stations is 1.23 ns during the ionospheric quiescence. During the active period of the ionosphere, the maximum difference of the ionospheric delay RMSE on CVN station is 16.80 ns. When the ionosphere is active, the VLBI orbit determination residual based on the SHAO model increases from 6.07 ns to 3.33 ns in S1 band, 9.10 ns to 7.07 ns in S2 band, 0.70 ns to 0.60 ns in X0 band compared with CODE model.
Analysis and Selection of Landing Areas for Mars Mission
WANG Yue, WANG Biao, WANG Xun, PAN Chenan, YAO Peiwen, LI Chenfan, LI Bo
2020, 7(4): 371-383.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20190708001
Abstract(365) HTML(172) PDF 1974KB(57)
In this paper, based on the(Digital Elevation Model)data, remote sensing imagery and geological units, the priority landing areas were selected by combining the engineering constraints(terrain factors, ground bearing capacity, elevation and latitude)and scientific significance, and geological background of these priority landing areas was studied. Firstly, terrain factors(including slope and roughness)of the tentative sub-area were extracted derived from DEM data. And the areas meeting engineering constraints, which have lower slope(< 7.38°), roughness value(< 0.0096), stronger ground bearing capacity, elevation(< –2 km)and latitude(0~30°N), were selected. Then, based on the two research focuses of life and geology, the areas containing the scientific significance were chosen as the priority landing areas(a~h). Among them, a and b priority landing areas are located in the Chryse Planitia, c~g priority landing areas are located in the Isidis Planitia and h priority landing area is located in the Nepenthes Planum. Finally, the geological backgrounds of the eight areas were studied, and three priority landing areas(e~g)were considered as the highest priority landing areas because of their flat terrain, location at the boundary of two geological units and detection of the distribution of hydrous minerals.
Analysis and Design of the Communication System for Multi-Probes Joint Lunar Polar Exploration
LIU Shi, LI Jionghui
2020, 7(4): 384-390.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20191029001
Abstract(25) HTML(10) PDF 531KB(12)
The communication system is one of the important subsystems of a lunar polar explorer. Because of the significant differences compared to the missions in lower latitudes, the features and requirements of communication design need to be clarified for lunar polar soft-landing explorations for the multi-spacecraft mission to explore the polar region of the Moon. In this paper, the communication system architecture, communication environment conditions and data volume and other mission requirements are analyzed, and the lunar polar area communication system link architecture is designed. The scheme is based on a set of lunar relay communication network. The link structure composed of the lunar communication network realizes the reliability and scalability of the system through the mutual backup of heterogeneous links and multi-center nodes, taking into account the optimal allocation of resources in the system. It can provide guidance for the implementation of future lunar polar region exploration and communication technology projects, as well as future lunar polar region exploration and communication technology projects.
A Union Design Method of Trajectory and Guidance for Launch Vehicles Adapted to Multi-Target Orbits
WANG Ying, TANG Mingliang, HAO Chuanchuan, ZHU Liangcon, FENG Jihang
2020, 7(4): 391-398.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200038
Abstract(19) HTML(11) PDF 524KB(11)
With the increasing of multi-satellite network launch missions and increasing multiple window launch missions, a union design method of trajectory and guidance is proposed in this paper, which can adapt for multiple target orbits. In this innovate method, one theory trajectory for one target orbit is designed, making a hypothesis which the satellite’ sentry point position is maintained unchanging for other target orbits, and then the terminal guidance parameters with requirements of other orbits are generated, and lastly the target orbits are reached by iterative guidance. The simulation results indicate that relative to the traditional method, this method can greatly reduce the calculation amount while making little impact on carry capacity, and has strong adaptation for multiple target orbit missions. This method can also adapt for temporary slightly target orbit adjustment.
Analysis on Space Power Synthesis Performance of Deep Space Antenna Array
ZHANG Xuwang, ZHANG Wenchan, MA Wenqi, CHEN Shaoqing, LIU Youyong
2020, 7(4): 399-406.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200052
Abstract(190) HTML(87) PDF 1189KB(17)
Deep space antenna array is one of the important measures to realize deep space exploration and communication with a very long distance. Based on the signal model of antenna array, the space power synthesis performance characeristics of the deep space antenna array are studied. The effects of time delay and phase compensation error of each antenna signal on the space power synthesis performance are analyzed, and the effects of formation of antenna array on the position and amplitude characteristics of grating lobes are studied. The simulation test results show that the grating lobes of the uniformly distributed square antenna array are evenly distributed and have a large amplitude. As the degree of non-uniform distribution of the antenna array increases, the grating lobes will become scattered and the amplitude will decrease, but the main lobe changes will not Not obvious. The grating lobes of the circular antenna array are scattered, while the main lobe and grating lobes of the L-shaped antenna array are both elliptical. It provides a certain reference for the design of deep space antenna array system.
Design of Wide Range Input and Output Beam Power Supply for Ion Electric Propulsion
CHEN Changwen, WU Rong
2020, 7(4): 407-416.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20200051
Abstract(154) HTML(93) PDF 1310KB(6)
The power processing unit(PPU)of ion electric propulsion system on the deep space detector needs to adapt to wide range voltage input, wide range voltage output and wide range power output, which results in the increase of component stress, volume and weight and decrease of efficiency of PPU. According to the requirements of grid power supply for ion electric propulsion PPU of small objects detector in China, the input voltage is 60 ~ 110 V, the output voltage is 420 ~ 1 260 V, and the output current is 0.3 ~ 2.1 A. In this paper, the design of grid power supply is studied from the aspects of power module decomposition, soft switching topology selection, single-stage power converter topology design and two-stage power converter topology design. A comprehensive optimization scheme in efficiency, volume and reliability is proposed. The physical verification of the design of single power module of grid power supply is carried out. The results show that the optimized module decomposition and fixed output voltage can effectively reduce the component stress, optimize the efficiency of the converter working point and improve the reliability of the converter; when using the single-stage phase shifted full bridge and full bridge LLC to design wide range input converters, there are still some problems, such as high stress of semiconductor power components, high capacitance stress, and difficult processing of magnetic components; the buck / boost + full bridge LLC two-stage topology scheme can simplify the stress of high-voltage rectifier circuit and adapt to wide range input. It is a preferred scheme for wide range input and output Beam power supply.

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Supervisor: Ministry of Industry and Information Technology

Sponsor: Beijing Institute of Technology, China Aerospace Society Committee for Deep Space Detection Technology

Editor-in-chief: Wu WeiRen

ISSN 2095-7777CN 10-1707/V

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