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基于空间矢量天线的太阳甚低频射电爆发探测
陈林杰
中国科学院国家天文台
摘要:
由太阳爆发活动引起的太阳风、日冕物质抛射、行星际激波和高能粒子事件被称为太阳电磁风暴,超级太阳爆发将会引起一些列的空间灾害性影响。因此,探索和掌握这些事件的发生、发展和活动规律,不仅在空间科学领域,而且在人类社会发展方面都有着重要的意义。日冕物质抛射(CME)、太阳风、行星际激波和高能粒子现象等传播、加速与演化的主要空间位于太阳表面以上4~5倍太阳半径到200余倍太阳半径之间的日地空间,在这个广阔区域里,电磁辐射主要位于从几十kHz到几十MHz之间,这个频率段通常称为甚低频波段(VLF)。虽然,目前已有空间探测器对太阳的甚低频射电爆发进行探测,但主要是频谱观测,且仅覆盖甚低频频段中的很小一部分,针对太阳低频射电爆发的成像观测仍然是空白。基于空间矢量天线的特性,它可以实现对空间来波信号的达波方向进行估计。而最新发射的一些空间 (甚) 低频射电探测器均采用了矢量天线─三极子天线,利用它可以实现对太阳射电爆发(包括II型和III型暴)的空间定位和成像观测。基于空间 (甚) 低频射电探测器对太阳射电爆发的探测,本文提出了利用三极子矢量天线定位太阳爆发的算法,并对算法进行仿真给出了不同条件下的探测结果,进而分析空间低频探测器探测太阳低频射电爆发的能力。
关键词:  甚低频;空间探测器;太阳射电爆发,矢量天线
DOI:
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金项目(面上项目,重点项目,重大项目)
Detection of Very Low Frequency Solar Radio Emission with Space Vector Antenna
Linjie Chen
National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences
Abstract:
Solar winds, coronal mass ejections (CME), interplanetary shock waves and high-energy particle events, induced by the solar radio bursts, are called as solar electromagnetic storms, the super solar radio burst will produce a series of disastrous effects on the space weather. Therefore, it is important to investigate and grasp the laws of the occurrence, development and activity of these events, not only for the space sciences, but also for the mankind society development. The propagation, acceleration, and evolution of the CMEs, solar winds, interplanetary shock waves and high-energy particle phenomena mainly happen at the frequency range from tens of KHz to tens of MHz, which is generally considered as the frequency band of very low frequency (VLF). Though, hitherto there are already few space instruments that have investigated the VLF solar radio emissions, most of the observations are spectral measurements, and only occupied part of the whole VLF band, the imaging observations of the VLF solar radio bursts are still blank. Based on the characteristics of the vector antenna, it can estimate the direction of arrival (DOA) of the incoming waves. All of the space (very) low frequency radio instruments that launched recently adopted tripole antenna as the detection antenna, it can be used to locate and imaging the solar radio bursts (Type II & III). For the detection of the solar radio bursts with the space VLF radio explorer, the different algorithms are proposed to detect the solar radio bursts with a tripole vector antenna, simulations have been done for these algorithms in different conditions, and the capability of detecting the solar radio bursts will be in further analyzed for the space VLF radio explorer.
Key words:  Very Low Frequency, Space Explorer, Solar Radio Burst, Vector Antenna