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火星无人探测与行星保护
徐侃彦1,2,3, 马玲玲1,2,3, 印红1,2,3, 张轶男4
1.航天神舟生物科技集团有限公司, 北京 100190;2.北京市空间生物工程技术研究中心, 北京 100190;3.中国航天科技集团公司空间生物工程研究中心, 北京 100190;4.中国空间技术研究院, 北京 100094
摘要:
行星保护是每一个开展深空探测的国家都要面对的问题,火星是太阳系里最可能存在地外生命的星球之一,也是行星保护的重点关注对象,在我国火星探测即将正式启动之际,对标国际上行星保护的政策、标准、技术和管理措施,对我国未来在火星探测中满足国际上行星保护的要求至关重要。主要回顾了行星保护的历史,国外在火星探测历史上行星保护正向防护所采取的措施,以及现代科学技术发展对行星保护正向防护相关技术的影响,并对我国未来火星及深空探测活动中应该采取的行星保护正向污染防护技术提出了建议。
关键词:  行星保护;火星探测;微生物;地外生命
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2019.01.002
分类号:
基金项目:载人航天领域第四批预先研究资助项目(010101)
Mars Robotic Exploration and Planetary Protection
XU Kanyan1,2,3, MA Lingling1,2,3, YIN Hong1,2,3, ZHANG Yinan4
1.Shenzhou Space Biology Science and Technology Coorporation, Ltd., Beijing 100190, China;2.Space Biology Research and Technology Center, Beijing 100190, China;3.Space Biology R & D Center of China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation Ltd, Beijing 100190, China;4.China Academy of Space Technology, Beijing 100094, China
Abstract:
Planetary protection is a key problem with which each country conducting deep space exploration should face. The Mars is one of the celestial bodies that extraterrestrial life may exist,and is the major target for planetary protection. Before China start its own Mars exploration program,it is necessary to understand the policy,standard,techniques and management related to the planetary protection,in order to implement the planetary protection policies and requirements during the future Mars exploration practice. In this paper,the history of planetary protection is introduced,as well as the major control activities taken to prevent forward contamination in the previous Mars exploration programs,and the effects of modern scientific and technological development on the forward contamination prevention techniques of planetary protection. Some suggestions are provided on the planetary protection forward contamination control in China's Mars exploration program.
Key words:  planetary protection;Mars exploration;microorganism control;extraterrestrial life