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载人深空探测活动中的尿液处理回收技术分析
朱国荣, 谢倍珍, 刘红
北京航空航天大学 生物与医学工程学院环境生物学与生命保障技术研究所, 北京 100083
摘要:
生物再生生命保障系统(Bioregenerative Life Support System,BLSS)是人类进行深空探测活动,实现长期载人空间飞行必需的关键技术,对于太空的探索开发具有重要意义。在BLSS系统内,航天员尿液废水的处理回收是非常重要的一部分。将尿液中所含有的大量的水分和丰富的营养物质回收用于系统内植物生长所需营养液的配制,既可以保证植物的正常生长,也有助于实现系统内物质的循环利用进而提高BLSS的闭合度。尿液中所含的大量盐分会威胁植物生长,所以需通过一定的技术手段处理尿液废水并回收其中的水分和营养。为了探索适用于BLSS中的尿液处理回收技术,首先分析了几种面向空间站应用的尿液处理技术,如蒸馏技术等;然后基于回收营养物质的需求,分析了面向民用的、发展较为成熟的尿液处理回收技术,如离子交换吸附技术、氨气吹脱技术和鸟粪石沉淀技术,并讨论了这些尿液处理回收技术在BLSS中的应用前景。最后基于BLSS的实际需求,提出了有望用于BLSS中的尿液处理回收技术流程。
关键词:  生物再生生命保障系统;尿液;水分;营养物质;回收
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
分类号:X703
基金项目:载人航天计划预研资助项目(020302)
Analysis of Urine Treatment and Recovery Technology Used in Manned Deep Space Exploration
ZHU Guorong, XIE Beizhen, LIU Hong
Institute of Environmental Biology and Life Support Technology, School of Biological Science and Medical Engineering, Beihang University, Beijing 100083, China
Abstract:
BLSS (Bioregenerative life support system) is a key technology for humans to conduct deep space exploration activities and realize long-term manned space flight. The urine wastewater treatment and recovery of the occupants is a very important part in the BLSS system. The large amount of water and nutrients contained in urine could be applied for the preparation of the nutrient solution required for plant growth in the system,which can not only ensure the normal growth of plants within the BLSS,but also contribute to the realization of the substances recycling and improvement in the closure of BLSS. The large amount of salt contained in urine would stress the growth of plants,so it is necessary to treat urine wastewater through certain technical means and recover water and nutrients. In the article,we analyzed several urine treatment technologies studied for space station,such as distillation technology,and then based on the needs of nutrients recovery,we discussed several mature and civilian urine treatment and recovery technologies,such as ion-exchange adsorption technology,ammonia stripping technology,and struvite precipitation technology. The prospects for the application of the urine treatment and recovery technologies in BLSS were discussed as well. In the end,based on the actual needs of BLSS,a urine treatment and recovery technology process that is expected to be used in BLSS is proposed.
Key words:  bioregenerative life support system;urine;water;nutrient;recovery