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火星大气进入下降着陆段测控通信关键技术研究
郝万宏, 董光亮, 李海涛, 王宏, 樊敏, 周欢, 徐得珍
北京跟踪与通信技术研究所, 北京 100094
摘要:
着眼于我国首次火星探测任务着陆器EDL(Entry Descent and Landing)飞行段高风险特性,结合火星大气和地表环境分析了这一飞行阶段的主要特点和难点,系统地回顾了国外历次火星着陆任务的基本概况和任务失败的经验教训,并以美国“好奇号”着陆任务为例介绍了EDL期间可采用的主要通信手段,详细梳理了火星大气黑障段通信策略、调制体制选择以及高动态弱信号检测处理方案等测控通信需要解决的关键技术。最后对我国首次火星探测任务的关键技术攻关,任务准备和实施提出了建议。
关键词:  EDL;高动态;黑障;对地通信;信号检测
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.05.004
分类号:V476
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(61603008)
Key Technologies for Communications in Mars Entry Descent and Landing
HAO Wanhong, DONG Guangliang, LI Haitao, WANG Hong, FAN Min, ZHOU Huan, XU Dezhen
Beijing Institute of Tracking and Telecommunications Technology, Beijing 100094, China
Abstract:
In light of the entry descent and landing flight in Chinese Mars exploration mission,this paper has analyzed the difficulties of this mission phase based on the characteristics of Mars atmosphere and terrain. All the past soft landing missions on Mars have been reviewed and the potential reasons for mission failure have been summarized. The communication architecture in Mars Science Laboratory has been introduced to illustrate all the potential communication methods. The key technologies include communication strategies for blackout,selection of signal modulation and high dynamic signal detection at low SNR. Finally,suggestions have been proposed for the implementation of EDL flight in Chinese Mars Exploration missions.
Key words:  EDL;high dynamic;blackout;direct-to-Earth communication;signal detection