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热力学排气系统压力控制地面原理实验研究
刘欣, 张晓屿
中国运载火箭技术研究院, 北京 100076
摘要:
低温推进剂由于其比冲高、无毒无污染,被认为是进入空间及轨道转移最经济、效率最高的化学推进剂,也是未来人类月球探测、火星探测以及更远距离深空探测的首选推进剂。热力学排气技术是解决低温推进剂长期在轨应用蒸发量控制问题的一项关键技术。针对应用于低温贮箱的热力学排气系统(TVS)搭建了地面原理实验平台,采用制冷剂R123为工质,开展了增压、混合喷射降压以及节流制冷3种不同工作模式下的实验研究,分析了不同阶段箱体压力及内部流体问题变化情况,实验验证了热力学排气系统的压力控制效果,与直接排气相比,热力学排气可节省41%的排气损失,该结果可为低温推进剂在轨贮存热力学排气技术的发展提供借鉴和参考。
关键词:  低温推进剂;蒸发量控制;热力学排气技术
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.6.013
分类号:V553
基金项目:
Ground Experimental Pressure Control Investigation of Thermodynamic Vent System
LIU Xin, ZHANG Xiaoyu
China Academy of Launch Vehicle Technology, Beijing 100076, China
Abstract:
Cryogenic propellants are considered to be the most economic and efficient chemical propellant for the space entering and orbit transfer,due to its high specific impulse and non-pollution. And they are also the first choice of propellant for future human lunar exploration,Mars exploration,and deeper space exploration. Thermodynamic vent system(TVS)is the key technology for long-term on-orbit storage of cryogenic fuel. In present study,one ground experiment is established to investigate the pressure control performance of TVS. The simulant fluid HCFC123 is selected to be the experiment fluid and to verify the efficient of TVS in the ground. The tank pressure variation and fluid temperature change are respectively studied during the tank self-pressurization,the injection mixing depressurization and active refrigeration process. The refrigeration capacity supplied by the TVS heat exchanger and the thermal stratification during different phases are specially illustrated. The present experiment proves the effectiveness of the pressure control performance by means of TVS. When compared to the direct venting method,TVS has recovered more than 41% venting loss,which could provide references for the development of cryogenic propellant thermodynamic vent system.
Key words:  cryogenic propellants;boil-off control;thermodynamic vent system