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脉冲星导航的天体测量考虑
李亮1,2, 王广利1,2, 郭丽1,2, 胡小工1,2
1.中国科学院 上海天文台, 上海 200030;2.中国科学院大学, 北京 100049
摘要:
X射线脉冲星导航是基于X射线脉冲星观测,经过信号处理得到脉冲到达时刻序列,进而分析该时间序列提供导航相关信息的技术。为了分析脉冲星导航的可行性和依赖条件,从概念上描述了脉冲星的观测模型,并比较了射电脉冲星观测和X射线脉冲星观测数据处理过程;进而从天体测量的角度论述了脉冲星导航可行性的相关问题,主要包含观测量的获取、整周模糊度和应用范围3个问题。经分析可知:观测量的获取与观测者的速度有关,该速度可通过最大化观测轮廓法确定;对于深空和超深空导航,整周模糊度是首先需要解决的问题,脉冲星的位置精度也是需要考虑的因素。理论上X射线脉冲星导航可以应用于近地和深空探测。
关键词:  脉冲星导航;天体测量;脉冲星计时;X射线脉冲星
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.3.005
分类号:P128.4
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(11873076,11473057)
Some Discussion on X-Ray Pulsar Navigation in Astrometry
LI Liang1,2, WANG Guangli1,2, GUO Li1,2, HU Xiaogong1,2
1.Shanghai Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Shanghai 200030, China;2.University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
Abstract:
The X-ray pulsar-based navigation (XNAV) technology is to determine the attitude,position and velocity of spacecraft using X-ray signals emitted from pulsars. The feasibility and sustainability of pulsar navigation is invented through theoretical astrometric analyses. The processing and modeling of pulsar signals of both X-ray and radio band is introduced,and then investigate The key problems in pulsar navigation are analyzed,and finally the applicable range of distance of XNAV is discussed. The our analyses show that the acquiring of the measurements is highly influenced by the spacecraft velocity. With the error of less than 3 m/s,the profile of a pulsar signal can be got,and from which the time of arrival (TOA) could be obtained. Also,the phase cycle ambiguity is a non-negligible problem in pulsar navigation.
Key words:  XNAV;astrometry;pulsar timing;X-ray pulsar