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航天器用可变发射率热控器件的研究进展
金海波1,2, 凌晨1,2, 李静波1,2
1.北京理工大学 材料学院, 北京 100081;2.结构可控先进功能材料与绿色应用北京市重点实验室, 北京 100081
摘要:
随着航天技术的发展,卫星的微型化对热控技术提出了挑战。可变发射率热控器件作为一种重要的航天器热控技术,对于航天器减小负载和体积,适应复杂多变的空间热环境具有重要的意义。基于热致变色技术的智能可变发射率热控器件可以根据环境温度实现智能热控,其结构简单,能最大限度地减小热控系统的体积和质量,是一种非常有潜力的航天器热控技术。概述了主动型和被动型两类可变发射率热控器件的基本原理和进展,并对钒氧化物基热致变色可变发射率热控器件的研究进展、存在问题予以了重点介绍,展望了未来航天器用可变发射率热控器件的发展趋势。
关键词:  卫星;热控技术;可变发射率;二氧化钒;热致变色
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.02.012
分类号:V46
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(51572027)
Development of Variable-Emittance Thermal Control Technology
JIN Haibo1,2, LING Chen1,2, LI Jingbo1,2
1.School of Materials Science and Engineering, Beijing Institute of Technology, Beijing 100081, China;2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Construction Tailorable Advanced Functional Materials and Green Applications, Beijing 100081, China
Abstract:
Small and micro-satellites are playing more and more important role in current and future space missions. Small spacecraft provide limited space and weight for thermal control system. As an important thermal control technology of spacecraft,the variable emittance devices is of great significance for reducing the load and volume of spacecraft as well as adapting to wide temperature swing in space. Thermochromic smart variable emittance devices can meet the loading requirement of small spacecraft and realize efficient thermal control. The basic principles and progress of both active and passive emittance thermal control devices are summarized. In which,the vanadium dioxide based thermochromic variable emittance thermal control device is introduced in detail. The basic principle,preparation methods and research progress are presented,and the development of variable-emittance thermal control technology is prospected.
Key words:  satellite;thermal control technology;variable emittance;vanadium dioxide;thermochromism