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质谱计在行星系统与小天体探测中的应用
王馨悦1,2, 孙越强1,2, 李永平1,2, 唐萍1,2
1.中国科学院 国家空间科学中心, 北京 100190;2.天基空间环境探测北京市重点实验室, 北京 100190
摘要:
质谱计多次应用于行星系统和小天体的大气层与土壤吸附气体或挥发组分及其同位素含量探索,是太阳系行星系统和小天体探测计划中的首选载荷之一。大气和土壤元素及其同位素组分探测对资源勘探、行星系统的宜居性、天体演化、起源及其重要事件的精准时间坐标研究等具有重要意义。质谱计已多次成功应用于火星、土星系、木星系、彗星等探测任务中开展大气环境探测。质谱计的探测对象主要包括太阳系行星、行星卫星如月球、木星伽利略卫星、土卫,以及地外小行星和彗星。四极杆质谱计在当前的深空空间环境探测活动中应用最为广泛。利用四极杆质谱计除可用于探测稀薄天体大气与土壤析出气体外,如增加抽真空能力的前端设计,则具备探测稠密大气成分的能力。中科院空间中心研发的星载质谱计已多次成功应用于地球行星大气成分和密度探测。
关键词:  质谱计;大气成分分析;土壤成分分析;深空探测
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2017.06.004
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(41204128)
The Application of Mass Spectrometer in Planetary System and Small Solar System Bodies
WANG Xinyue1,2, SUN Yueqiang1,2, LI Yongping1,2, TANG Ping1,2
1.National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China;2.Beijing Key Laboratory of Space Environment Exploration, Beijing 100190, China
Abstract:
Mass spectrometer is one of the primary science payloads for deep space explorations. It has been used for the atmosphere and soil composition analysis of the planet system and the small Solar system body for many times. The composition and isotope abundant of the atmosphere and soil measurement can be used for the research of the resource prospection, inhabitability, celestial body evolvement, origin and the history of the key geologic events. Mass spectrometer has been used for several times in deep space missions of exploring the atmosphere of Mars, Saturn system, Jupiter system and comets etc. The deep space objects detected by mass spectrometer are introduced. The quadrupole mass spectrometer is used widely in deep space exploration activities. It's not only used to detect the thin atmosphere and the adsorption gas of the soil but also to detect the dense atmosphere with the front design of the vacuum equipment. The spaceborne quadrupole mass spectrometer developed by National Space Science Center has been used widely in the detection of the component and density of the Earth atmosphere. Finally, the development trends of the MS technology are analyzed, including miniaturization, broaden spectrum and large dynamic count range.
Key words:  mass spectrum;planetary atmosphere;planetary soil;space exploration