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核热推进技术发展综述
解家春, 霍红磊, 苏著亭, 赵泽昊
中国原子能科学研究院 反应堆工程技术研究部, 北京 102413
摘要:
核热推进具有比冲高、推力大,及工作时间长等特点,在载人深空探测、大型星际货物运输等方面有广阔的应用前景。介绍了美国和俄罗斯/前苏联的核热推进技术研发历程和技术发展状态,归纳总结了发展过程中呈现出的推力水平中等化、堆芯构成模块化、燃料元件高性能化、试验手段非核化和多功能模式化的发展趋势,并初步分析了核热推进研发过程中所涉及的反应堆设计技术、核安全防护设计技术、燃料芯块制备技术、燃料元件成型技术、排气处理技术,及发动机启动技术等关键技术。最后对我国核热推进技术发展提出了核与航天部门合作研发、借鉴美俄经验教训、及早并持续开展研究的发展建议。
关键词:  核热推进;核热火箭发动机;载人深空探测;核反应堆
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2017.05.003
分类号:
基金项目:载人航天预研项目(050201)
Review of Nuclear Thermal Propulsion Technology Development
XIE Jiachun, HUO Honglei, SU Zhuting, ZHAO Zehao
China Institute of Atomic Energy, Department of Reactor Engineering Technology, Beijing 102413, China
Abstract:
NTP(Nuclear Thermal Propulsion)has special features of high specific impulse,powerful force and long operating time. NTP could be used for manned deep space exploration and large-scale cargo shipment between stars. The NTP research history and technology development in America and Russia are introduced in this paper. The trends of NTP development are summarized,namely medium thrust engine,modularized reactor core,high performance fuel element,non-nuclear experiment method and multiple function design. The key technologies of reactor design,nuclear safety protection design,fuel preparation,fuel element manufacture,exhaust handling,and engine startup,are analyzed. At last,some suggestions for NTP development in China are given,including cooperation between nuclear and aerospace industries,drawing lessons from American and Russian experiences and initiating research work as soon as possible.
Key words:  nuclear thermal propulsion;nuclear rocket engine;manned deep space exploration;nuclear reactor