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核动力深空探测器现状及发展研究
朱安文, 刘飞标, 杜辉, 马世俊
北京空间飞行器总体设计部, 北京 100094
摘要:
深空探测中,由于无法使用太阳能或者太阳能的利用效率太低,需要使用空间核电源。当前用于月球表面、火星表面、木星及以远的飞行任务中的核动力深空探测器,均利用的同位素核源衰变能,包括同位素热源用于温度控制和采用温差发电用于供电。研究中的深空探测核动力应用包括月球基地、载人火星飞行、无人探测、使用核反应堆裂变能等。空间裂变电源的反应堆包括液态金属冷却堆和气冷堆两种方式,前者支持温差、斯特林和布雷顿发电,后者支持布雷顿和磁流体发电。近期开始探索研究核聚变深空探测器。纵观核动力深空探测器的发展历程,同位素电源依然在深空探测中发挥着重要作用,大功率空间核电源结合电推进将成为未来深空探测的重要关注方向。
关键词:  核动力;深空探测器;同位素电源;反应堆
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2017.05.002
分类号:
基金项目:
Current Status and Development for Deep Space Nuclear Power Explorer
ZHU Anwen, LIU Feibiao, DU Hui, MA Shijun
Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering, Beijing 100094, China
Abstract:
In deep space exploration, due to the inability to use solar power or solar energy utilization efficiency is too low, space nuclear power is needed. So far, the isotope radioisotope decay energy is mainly used for nuclear power deep space explorers exploring the Lunar surface, Mars surface, Jupiter and beyond , while decay heat energy is used for temperature control and thermoelectric power generation. The applications of space nuclear power in deep space exploration include the Lunar base project, manned Mars flight, unmanned exploration and so on, where the fission energy is adopted. The reactors used in space fission power include reactors include liquid metal cooled reactor and gas cooled reactor. The former is able to support thermoelectric, stirling and brayton power generation, while the latter is able to support brayton and MHD power generation. The deep space explorers with the fission power attract much attention recently. From the perspective of the development of space nuclear power, the radioisotope thermoelectric generator will still play an important role in this field, and large space nuclear power combined with electric propulsion system will be an important direction of future deep space exploration.
Key words:  nuclear power;deep space explorer;radioisotope thermoelectric generator;reactor