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月球轨道编队超长波天文观测微卫星任务
曹喜滨1, 张锦绣1, 陈学雷2, 安军社3
1.哈尔滨工业大学 卫星技术研究所, 哈尔滨 150080;2.中国科学院 国家天文台, 北京 100012;3.中国科学院 国家空间科学中心, 北京 100190
摘要:
月球背面能够有效屏蔽来自地球并同时遮挡来自太阳的射电信号干扰,拥有太阳系中近乎最安静的电磁环境,是开展空间超长波天文观测的最佳选择区域。在立足完成空间干涉实验的基本任务目标基础、并力争实现重大科学发现的研究思路基础上,研制并发射两颗微卫星,搭载“嫦娥4号”任务进入地月转移轨道,自主完成地月转移、近月制动,在有效燃料约束下形成环月大椭圆轨道编队,构建环月超长波天文干涉仪。说明了系统的工作模式,对数据处理与科学分析方法进行了论述,包括数据预处理、干涉成像与全天功率谱获取角度,进而从支持服务模块和科学载荷模型两个方面对微卫星方案进行了简要概述,凝练了项目任务解决的关键科学与技术问题。月球轨道编队超长波天文观测微卫星的实施将通过全球首个绕月近距编队飞行系统,构建全球首个星-星干涉射电天文观测系统,进而打开人类认识宇宙的新窗口。
关键词:  超长波观测;干涉测量;月球轨道编队;微卫星
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2017.02.009
分类号:P171.3
基金项目:
Formation Flying Around Lunar for Ultra-Long Wave Radio Interferometer Mission
CAO Xibin1, ZHANG Jinxiu1, CHEN Xuelei2, AN Junshe3
1.Research Center of Satellite Technology, Harbin Institute of Technology Harbin 150001;2.National Astronomical Observatory, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012;3.National Space Science Center, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190
Abstract:
The farside of the Moon can effectively block the radio interference from the Earth and the Sun,which provides almost the quietest electromagnetic environment within the solar system. Hence,it would be the best place to make astronomical super-long wavelength observation in the space. In this mission,we will realize the basic mission goal of conducting interferometry experiment,and will also try to make important scientific discoveries. Two micro satellites will be manufactured and launched into space by piggybacking on the CHANG'E-4 mission. The two satellites will be detached from the rocket at the start of the earth-moon transfer orbit and conduct orbit transfer autonomously,and make a brake as closing to the moon. Due to limited fuel supply,the orbit is a large ellipse orbit. They are to fly in formation and perform super long wave interferometry at the lunar farside of the orbit. In this paper the work modes of the system is presented,and the data processing and analysis methods are discussed,including the data pre-processing,the interference imaging and global spectrum measurement. The micro-satellite supporting services model and the scientific payload model are also described. The key technology problems are summarized. With this project,the first formation flying microsatellite system in lunar orbit is realized,and the first star-star interferometry astronomical observation is conducted.
Key words:  ultra-long wave radio;interferometer;lunar formation flying;micro-satellite