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月球背面地形对软着陆探测的影响分析
李飞1, 张熇1, 吴学英1, 马继楠1, 卢亮亮2
1.北京空间飞行器总体设计部, 北京 100094;2.探月与航天工程中心, 北京 100037
摘要:
相对于月球正面大面积平坦的月海区域,月球背面地形整体崎岖复杂,因此地形地貌的变化会对探测器的软着陆探测产生一定的影响。从任务设计、着陆器设计和月面工作程序3个方面分析了“嫦娥4号”着陆区南极-艾特肯盆地(South-Pole Aitken Basin,SPA),及其相对于“嫦娥3号”着陆区的变化,主要结论包括:1)着陆区范围缩小,由“嫦娥3号”着陆区经度范围16.4°和纬度范围3°,减小到经度范围约4°和纬度范围约2°;2)动力下降策略更改,动力下降过程主减速段结束后,着陆器由斜向前运动轨迹改为接近垂直向下运动轨迹,同时更改测距敏感器的引入时机;3)提高微波测距测速敏感器信号发射功率和信噪比;4)着陆后需要预测着陆器的光照和测控被地形遮挡的情况,然后制定如休眠或月食模式等相应策略等。通过以上优化设计,“嫦娥4号”任务可适应月球背面地形地貌的变化,有效降低着陆过程和月面工作的风险。
关键词:  嫦娥4号;月球背面;南极–艾特肯盆地;软着陆;地形地貌
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2017.02.007
分类号:V476.3
基金项目:
Influence Analysis of Terrain of the Farside of the Moon on Soft-Landing
LI Fei1, ZHANG He1, WU Xueying1, MA Jinan1, LU Liangliang2
1.Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering, Beijing 100094, China;2.Lunar Exploration and Space Program Center, Beijing 100037, China
Abstract:
Chang'e-4 probe is planned to land on the farside of the moon for the first time of the human being. Compared to the nearside of the moon, the terrain on the farside of the moon is rugged and complex, and there is no large flat area, so the change of the terrain will affect the soft-landing of Chang'e-4. The Chang'e-4 landing site on the South-Pole Aitken Basin is analyzed and compared wth the landing area of Chang'e-3 mission, considering the influences ofthe mission design, the lander design and the lunar working procedure. The main conclusions are as follows:1) The latitude and longitude range of the landing area is reduced from 16.4° and 3° for Chang'e-3 mission to about 4° and 2° for Chang'e-4 mission; 2) During the power descent phase, the strategy after the main deceleration phase is changed from the oblique forward motion trajectory to the vertical down trajectory, and the operation time of the distance measuring sensor is also changed; 3) The signal transmission powers and signal to noise ratios of the microwave ranging and velocity sensor will be improved; 4) The lighting of the lander and the communication by the terrain occlusion will be prediected, and the design operation strategies such as sleep mode or eclipse mode will be established. Through the modification, Chang'e-4 mission can be adapted to the changes in the topography of the farside of the moon to reduce the risk of landing and lunar mission.
Key words:  Chang'e-4;farside of the moon;South-Pole Aitken Basin;soft-landing;terrain