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“嫦娥4号”月球背面软着陆任务设计
吴伟仁, 王琼, 唐玉华, 于国斌, 刘继忠, 张玮, 宁远明, 卢亮亮
探月与航天工程中心, 北京 100037
摘要:
介绍了“嫦娥4号”月球背面软着陆任务设计方案。着陆区初步选定为月球背面南极-艾特肯(South Pole-Aitken,SPA)盆地内的冯·卡门(Von Kármán)撞击坑内。采用中继星实现着陆器和巡视器的对地通信,并选择环绕地月拉格朗日L2点的halo轨道作为其使命轨道。采用CZ-4C火箭和CZ-3B火箭,分别完成中继星和着陆器-巡视器组合体的发射。两器一星上共配置了6台国内研制科学载荷和3台国际合作科学载荷,开展以低频射电天文观测、巡视区形貌、矿物组份及浅层结构为主的科学探测。此外,还搭载了2颗月球轨道编队飞行微卫星、月面微型生态圈和大孔径激光角反射镜,分别开展超长波天文干涉测量试验、月面生态系统试验和超过地月距离的激光测距试验。通过创新设计顶层任务,充分继承成熟技术和产品,增加中继通信功能模块,开放资源引入高性能载荷和搭载项目,将实现一次低成本、短周期、大开放、高效益的月球探测任务。
关键词:  月球背面;地月L2点;着陆器;巡视器;中继星
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2017.02.002
分类号:V41
基金项目:国家中长期科技发展规划重大专项资助项目
Design of Chang'E-4 Lunar Farside Soft-Landing Mission
WU Weiren, WANG Qiong, TANG Yuhua, YU Guobin, LIU Jizhong, ZHANG Wei, NING Yuanming, LU Liangliang
Lunar Exploration and Space Engineering Center, Beijing 100037, China
Abstract:
The design of the Chang'E-4 lunar farside soft-landing mission is introduced in this paper. The landing area is initially selected as the Von Kármán crater inside the South Pole-Aitken basin on the lunar farside. A relay satellite is used to realize the lander and rover to the ground communication, and a Halo orbit around the second Earth-Moon Lagrangian point is chosen as its mission orbit. The relay satellite and the lander-rover combination are launched by a CZ-4C rocket and a CZ-3B rocket respectively. The lander, rover and relay satellite containing six domestic scientific payloads and three international scientific payloads, have carried out scientific exploration focusing on VLF radio astronomical observation, roving area topography survey, mineral composition and shallow structure investigation. In addition, two formation flying microsatellites on lunar orbit, lunar micro-ecosphere and large-aperture laser angle reflector are launched to carry out ultra-long-wave astronomical interferometry test, lunar surface ecosystem test and laser ranging test over the Earth-Moon distance respectively. By innovatively designing the top-level tasks, adequately inheriting mature technology and products, adding the function module of relay communication, and opening some resources to introduce high-performance payloads and test projects, a low-cost, short-duration, great-openness and high-efficiency lunar exploration mission would be achieved.
Key words:  lunar farside;Earth-Moon L2 point;lunar landers;rover;relay satellite