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基于星联网的深空自主导航方案设计
郑伟, 张璐, 王奕迪
国防科学技术大学 航天科学与工程学院, 长沙 410073
摘要:
为了降低地面测控系统的负担、提高深空探测器的导航效率,提出了基于星联网的航天器自主导航概念,对星联网的应用体系进行了设计。借助脉冲星、星间链路等手段实现星联网系统中基准航天器完全自主的高精度导航,用户航天器通过与基准航天器或其他用户航天器的交互通信与测量就可以实现自身状态估计。以地月转移任务为例,设计了星联网系统在地月空间的具体应用方案,分析了地月空间基准航天器的配置与自主导航方法,阐述了用户航天器的单层与多层导航策略。对基于脉冲星与星间链路观测的基准航天器自主导航进行了仿真,验证了观测基准航天器或者其他用户航天器时,地月转移段航天器自主导航的可行性。结果表明:基准航天器可以达到20 m的定位精度,用户航天器可以达到优于30 m的定位精度。基于星联网的航天器自主导航是可行的,发展星联网可以为我国构建天基自主基准导航系统提供有力支持。
关键词:  星联网;自主导航;脉冲星;地月转移任务
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2017.01.005
分类号:
基金项目:
Design of Deep Space Autonomous Navigation System Based on Spacecraft Networking
ZHENG Wei, ZHANG Lu, WANG Yidi
School of Aerospace Science and Engineering, National University of Defense Technology, Changsha 410073, China
Abstract:
In order to reduce the heavy burden on the ground-based network,as well as increasing navigation efficiency for deep space explorers,a method of autonomous navigation based on Spacecraft Networking is proposed in this article. The network comprises two types of spacecraft,namely,basis spacecraft and customer spacecraft. The basis spacecraft implement autonomous navigation by observing X-ray pulsar,inter-ranging,etc. The basis spacecraft provides the standard basis for the whole network,and a customer spacecraft determines its position by communicating with the basis spacecraft or with the other customer spacecraft. The specific scheme of Spacecraft Networking is illustrated by an example of Earth to Moon transfer mission. The configuration scheme and the navigation method of the basis spacecraft are analyzed in this paper,and the navigation method for single and multi-tiered customer spacecraft is presented in this paper. Simulations demonstrate that by measuring X-ray pulsar and inter-ranging links,the basis spacecraft can reach the accuracy of 20 m. When observing the basis spacecraft,the customer spacecraft in Earth to Moon transfer orbit can reach the accuracy of better than 30 m. Autonomous navigation based on Spacecraft Networking is feasible and can significantly benefit China's Space-based navigation system.
Key words:  spacecraft networking;autonomous navigation;pulsar;Earth to Moon transfer mission