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无人火星取样返回任务关键环节分析
孟林智1, 董捷1, 许映乔1, 王硕2
1.北京空间飞行器总体设计部, 北京 100094;2.中国空间技术研究院, 北京 100094
摘要:
无人火星取样返回探测在科学成果获取和工程能力提升方面均具有重要意义,与国外已经多次实现的火星着陆巡视任务相比,其任务周期更长,技术风险更高。取样返回飞行方式决定了任务的系统顶层设计。通过对国外研究成果的对比论证,认为应当在火星轨道附近完成交会捕获与样品转移任务,因此需要采用2个不同功能探测器:一个完成火星捕获、样品转移收纳与火地返回;另一个完成火星大气进入、表面上升与样品投送。在此基础上对大气进入、起飞上升、火星轨道交会捕获、样品转移、地球再入等关键环节进行任务分析,论证主要技术难点和初步的可实现途径。
关键词:  火星;取样返回;方案规划;任务分析
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2016.02.003
分类号:
基金项目:
Analysis of Key Technologies for Unmanned Mars Sample Return Mission
MENG Linzhi1, DONG Jie1, XU Yingqiao1, WANG Shuo2
1.Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering, Beijing 100094, China;2.China Academy of Technology Beijing 100094, China
Abstract:
Unmanned Mars sample return mission is of great significance to obtain scientific results and improve engineering ability. The mission period is longer and technical risk is higher compared with several foreign Mars landing and roving missions. The top-level system design is determined by the mission flight mode. The rendezvous capture and sample transfer process should be completed near the Mars orbit. Therefore, two probes with different functions are required:one is used to perform Mars capture, sample storage and Mars-Earth transfer, the other to complete EDL process, Mars surface ascent and sample delivery. Such key issues as EDL mode, Mars ascent vehicle, Mars orbit rendezvous and capture, sample transfer, earth entry vehicle, system scales, rocket selection, etc. are analyzed in this paper. The main technical difficulty and solution approaches are discussed.
Key words:  Mars;sample return;scheme planning;mission analysis