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载人深空探测任务的空间环境工程关键问题
沈自才1, 代巍1, 白羽1, 刘荣强2, 丁义刚1, 刘业楠1
1.北京卫星环境工程研究所, 北京 100094;2.哈尔滨工业大学, 哈尔滨 150001
摘要:
对载人深空探测过程中将遭受的太阳宇宙射线、银河宇宙射线、微重力、尘与尘暴、深空微生物等环境进行分析。对不同深空环境给航天员带来的威胁进行了探讨。从物理屏蔽防护、辐射风险的监测和预警、辐射防护药物、航天员选拨等角度对采取的措施进行了阐述。从空间辐射对航天员的损伤机理、抗辐射和微重力药物开发、空间辐射屏蔽防护结构与材料、航天服自清洁、抗微生物侵蚀材料的研发等多个角度对需要进一步开展的工作进行了讨论。
关键词:  载人;深空探测;空间环境工程
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2016.02.001
分类号:
基金项目:国家自然科学基金资助项目(41174166)
Key Problems of Space Environmental Engineering for Manned Deep Space Exploration Mission
SHEN Zicai1, DAI Wei1, BAI Yu1, LIU Rongqiang2, DING Yigang1, LIU Yenan1
1.Beijing Institute of Space Environment Engineering, Beijing 100094;2.Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150001
Abstract:
Space environments such as solar cosmic ray, galactic cosmic ray, microgravity, dust and dust storm, deep space microbe and so on, which will be encountered during the course of manned deep space exploration, are firstly introduced. Then, the threat of different deep space environments to the astronauts is discussed, and some countermeasures such as physical protection, monitoring and early warning of radiation risks, radiation protection drugs, astronaut selection, etc, is given. Finally, the further work should be done for manned deep space mission, which includes damage mechanism of space radiation on the astronaut, development of drug against space radiation and microgravity, protection of structure and material from space radiation environments, self cleaning materials and technology for space suit, research and development of materials against microbial erosion, etc, are discussed.
Key words:  manned;deep space exploration;space environment engineering