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载人小行星探测任务总体方案研究
张泽旭, 郑博, 周浩, 崔祜涛
哈尔滨工业大学 深空探测基础研究中心, 哈尔滨 150080
摘要:
设计了在近地轨道组装具有分组单元结构的载人深空飞船,包括核热推进单元、燃料储箱与供给单元、主动防辐射单元、人工重力单元、深空居住舱与多任务乘员舱等,给出了各个单元的尺寸与质量参数,并对主要单元的具体组成、功能和技术特点进行了分析。在此基础上,本文以编号4660的Nereus小行星为探测目标,设计了两脉冲转移初始轨道,并进行了轨道优化,得到了发射窗口和最优转移轨道。仿真结果表明,给出的最优两脉冲转移轨道单次施加脉冲在5 km/s以内,单程转移时间在160 d以内,能够满足未来能量较小的载人小行星探测任务。
关键词:  载人深空探测;核热推进;载人深空飞船;近地小行星;轨道设计与优化
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2015.03.007
分类号:
基金项目:国家重点基础研究发展计划(973计划) (2012CB720000);国家自然科学基金资助项目(61374213);装备预研共用技术基金资助项目(9140A04030113HT01049);中国航天科技集团公司航天创新基金(CASC201312)资助课题
Overall Scheme of Manned Asteroid Exploration Mission
ZHANG Zexu, ZHENG Bo, ZHOU Hao, CUI Hutao
Deep Space Exploration Research Center, Harbin Institute of Technology, Harbin 150080, China
Abstract:
The manned spacecraft for deep space exploration, including nuclear thermal propulsion module, fuel tank and supply module, active radiation-resistant module, artificial gravity module, habitation module and multi-task crew cabin is designed in this paper. The size and mass of these elements are presented and the composition, function and characteristics of the main elements are analyzed. The two-impulse transfer trajectories are designed preliminarily on the basis of previous analysis, taking No.4660 asteroid named Nereus as the exploration target. The launch window and optimal transfer trajectory are obtained. The simulation results show that the optimal two-impulse transfer trajectory makes the single impulse within 5 km/s and single transfer time within 160 days, which satisfies the low-energy manned asteroid exploration missions in the future.
Key words:  manned deep space exploration;nuclear thermal propulsion;manned spacecraft;near Earth asteroids;trajectory design and optimization