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太阳系探测的发展趋势与科学问题分析
郑永春1, 欧阳自远1,2
1.中国科学院国家天文台,中国科学院月球与深空探测重点实验室,北京100012;2.中国科学院地球化学研究所,贵阳550002
摘要:
分析了太阳系探测的发展趋势,认为从月球到火星是未来太阳系探测的主线,太阳系探测将从普查性 探测向重点天体探测转变,从技术实现为主向科学牵引转变,国际合作成为太阳系探测的必然趋势。归纳了太阳 系探测的关键科学问题,认为太阳系与行星系统的起源和演化是探测的终极科学目标,寻找地外生命和宜居环境 是探测的主要驱动力,预防太阳活动和小天体撞击对地球的灾害性影响是探测的现实意义。在探月工程取得进展 之后,中国应以月球和火星探测为主线,以火星探测为切入点,有序开展火星、小行星、太阳、金星、木星系统等太阳 系探测任务,牵引航天技术进步,推动行星科学发展。
关键词:  太阳系探测;发展趋势;科学问题
DOI:
分类号:P181
基金项目:中国科学院西部之光“联合学者”项目、香江学者计划、澳门科技发展基金(048/2012/A2)
Development Trend Analysis of Solar System Explorationand the Scientific Vision for Future Missions
ZHENG Yongchun1, OUYANGZiyuan2
1.Key Laboratory of Lunarand Deep Space Exploration,National Astronomical Observatories,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012,China;2.Key Laboratory of Lunarand Deep Space Exploration,National Astronomical Observatories,Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012,China.Institute of Geochemistry,Chinese Academy of Sciences,Guiyang 550002,China
Abstract:
This paper summarizes the history of solar system exploration and the major scientific achievements. We can find out significant trends for future solar system exploration.Firstly,from the Moon to the Mars is the Main line for future solar system exploration.China has carried out three lunar missions.The next objective body Will focus on the Mars.Secondly,the general survey of the solar system is not popular as be fore.Future solar System exploration will focus on some high interested asteroids,planet sand their moons.Thirdly,the solar system Exploration in the last century was focused on technology realization,while that in the new century will be driven by science.Fourthly,we must face the technology difficulties,shortage of professionals,and unaffordable budgets in The solar system missions These problems are difficult for any country to solve by itself.Therefore,international Cooperation is necessary and needed.This paper also analyzes the three major science themes of the solar system exploration:the origin and evolution of the solar system and planets,and the search for extraterrestrial life and Habitable environment,guard against the catastrophic events of the strong solar activity and asteroid impact on the Earth.With the progress of China’s Lunar Exploration Program,China should carry out its Mars mission as soon as possible.After that,China will promote its missions to the asteroids,Sun,Venus,Jupiter system,and otherbodies.
Key words:  solar system exploration;development trend;science theme