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应用于空间微生物防护的多尺度杂化抗菌剂研究
甄贺伟, 徐晓玲, 李果, 周祚万
西南交通大学 材料科学与工程学院 材料先进技术教育部重点实验室, 成都 610031
摘要:
由于航天员的参与,载人航天活动中难以避免微生物防护的问题,而航天器环境密闭、空间狭小,难以采用地面常用的喷洒一次性有机消毒剂、紫外线杀菌等方式进行微生物防护。通过采用无机抗菌剂,结合纳米技术和杂化结构耦合所产生的协同作用来获得综合性能优异的无机抗菌剂,并采用适当的技术将其应用到航天器上是一种可行的办法。通过热分解前驱体和还原金属离子的方法分别在T-ZnO和CNTs上杂化纳米银和纳米铜,获得了多尺度纳米杂化抗菌剂。采用表面涂覆、浸渍和挤压法及活化接枝的方法分别探究了纳米抗菌剂在铝合金、芳纶布和树脂等材料中的应用。3种基体材料经抗菌改性后对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌、白色念珠菌的抗菌率都可达到99.9%,对黑曲霉及其孢子的防霉等级都达到了0级,而且改性后的材料具有很好的耐老化、耐水性及良好的耐擦洗性能。该方法在深空探测活动中的微生物防护方面有很大发展前景。
关键词:  微生物防护;载人航天;抗菌;无机;杂化
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2019.01.006
分类号:O6
基金项目:
Study on Multi-Scale Hybrid Antibacterial Agents Applied on Spacecraft for Microbial Control
ZHEN Hewei, XU Xiaoling, LI Guo, ZHOU Zuowan
Key Laboratory of Advanced Technologies of Materials(Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Southwest Jiaotong University, Chengdu 610031, China
Abstract:
Microbial control is unavoidable in manned space activities due to the participation of astronauts. It is difficult to use traditional methods such as spraying organic disinfectant and ultraviolet sterilization which are often used in the ground for the microbial control on spacecraft. A feasible method is to apply inorganic antibacterial agents with excellent comprehensive properties by combining the synergistic effect of nanotechnology and hybrid structure coupling to spacecraft. In this work,multi-scale hybrid antibacterial agents are obtained by hybridizing n-Ag and n-Cu on T-ZnO and CNTs respectively through thermal decomposition of precursor and reduction of metal ions. The application of multi-scale hybrid antibacterial agents in aluminum alloy,aramid fiber fabric and resin are investigated by means of surface coating,immersion method and activation grafting. The antibacterial rates of the three matrix materials against Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus and Candida albicans are all up to 99.9%,and the anti-mildew levels against Aspergillus niger and its spores are up to 0. The modified materials have good aging resistance,water resistance and scrub resistance. This method can be widely applied in the aspect of microbial control in deep space exploration.
Key words:  microbial protection;manned spaceflight;antimicrobial;inorganic;hybridization