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深空探测中的钚-238同位素电源
罗洪义, 牛厂磊, 吴胜娜, 李鑫, 唐显, 罗志福
中国原子能科学研究院 同位素所,北京 102413
摘要:
钚-238同位素电源(钚-238 RTG)能够在恶劣环境下长时间自持运行,供电的同时还能提供热能,是深空探测任务的理想能源。首先对温差型钚-238 RTG发电原理和基本结构进行了阐述,介绍了国内外钚-238 RTG应用历史和发展趋势,进而梳理出了钚-238 RTG研制关键技术,然后结合国外钚-238 RTG研制技术状况及未来深空探测需求,对上述关键技术进行了分析和讨论,从而可为我国钚-238 RTG技术发展及其工程应用提供参考。
关键词:  钚-238 RTG  钚-238 RHU  温差型转换  安全性  可靠性
DOI:10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2020.20191129001
分类号:V41
基金项目:
The Plutonium-238 Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator in the Deep Space Exploration
LUO Hongyi, NIU Changlei, WU Shengna, LI Xin, TANG Xian, LUO Zhifu
Dept. of Isotope China Institute of Atomic Energy,Beijing 102413,China
Abstract:
The Plutonium-238 radioisotope thermoelectric generator (Plutonium-238 RTG) can work continuously without maintenance for a long time in harsh environment. It can supply power and thermal energy at the same time, which is an ideal energy source for deep space exploration missions. Firstly, the electricity power generation theory, basic structure, application history and development tendency of Plutonium-238 RTG are described in this paper. Then the key technologies for the development of Plutonium-238 RTG are presented, combined with the technology development of Plutonium-238 RTG in foreign countries and the requirements for deep space exploration. The above-mentioned key technologies are analyzed and discussed, providing a reference to the technology development and engineering application of Plutonium-238 RTG in China.
Key words:  Plutonium-238 RTG  Plutonium-238 RHU  thermoelectric conversion  safety  reliability