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载人深空探测活动中的尿液处理回收技术分析

朱国荣 谢倍珍 刘红

朱国荣, 谢倍珍, 刘红. 载人深空探测活动中的尿液处理回收技术分析[J]. 深空探测学报(中英文), 2018, 5(6): 582-590. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
引用本文: 朱国荣, 谢倍珍, 刘红. 载人深空探测活动中的尿液处理回收技术分析[J]. 深空探测学报(中英文), 2018, 5(6): 582-590. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
ZHU Guorong, XIE Beizhen, LIU Hong. Analysis of Urine Treatment and Recovery Technology Used in Manned Deep Space Exploration[J]. Journal of Deep Space Exploration, 2018, 5(6): 582-590. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
Citation: ZHU Guorong, XIE Beizhen, LIU Hong. Analysis of Urine Treatment and Recovery Technology Used in Manned Deep Space Exploration[J]. Journal of Deep Space Exploration, 2018, 5(6): 582-590. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012

载人深空探测活动中的尿液处理回收技术分析

doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
基金项目: 载人航天计划预研资助项目(020302)

Analysis of Urine Treatment and Recovery Technology Used in Manned Deep Space Exploration

  • 摘要: 生物再生生命保障系统(Bioregenerative Life Support System,BLSS)是人类进行深空探测活动,实现长期载人空间飞行必需的关键技术,对于太空的探索开发具有重要意义。在BLSS系统内,航天员尿液废水的处理回收是非常重要的一部分。将尿液中所含有的大量的水分和丰富的营养物质回收用于系统内植物生长所需营养液的配制,既可以保证植物的正常生长,也有助于实现系统内物质的循环利用进而提高BLSS的闭合度。尿液中所含的大量盐分会威胁植物生长,所以需通过一定的技术手段处理尿液废水并回收其中的水分和营养。为了探索适用于BLSS中的尿液处理回收技术,首先分析了几种面向空间站应用的尿液处理技术,如蒸馏技术等;然后基于回收营养物质的需求,分析了面向民用的、发展较为成熟的尿液处理回收技术,如离子交换吸附技术、氨气吹脱技术和鸟粪石沉淀技术,并讨论了这些尿液处理回收技术在BLSS中的应用前景。最后基于BLSS的实际需求,提出了有望用于BLSS中的尿液处理回收技术流程。
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载人深空探测活动中的尿液处理回收技术分析

doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
    基金项目:  载人航天计划预研资助项目(020302)

摘要: 生物再生生命保障系统(Bioregenerative Life Support System,BLSS)是人类进行深空探测活动,实现长期载人空间飞行必需的关键技术,对于太空的探索开发具有重要意义。在BLSS系统内,航天员尿液废水的处理回收是非常重要的一部分。将尿液中所含有的大量的水分和丰富的营养物质回收用于系统内植物生长所需营养液的配制,既可以保证植物的正常生长,也有助于实现系统内物质的循环利用进而提高BLSS的闭合度。尿液中所含的大量盐分会威胁植物生长,所以需通过一定的技术手段处理尿液废水并回收其中的水分和营养。为了探索适用于BLSS中的尿液处理回收技术,首先分析了几种面向空间站应用的尿液处理技术,如蒸馏技术等;然后基于回收营养物质的需求,分析了面向民用的、发展较为成熟的尿液处理回收技术,如离子交换吸附技术、氨气吹脱技术和鸟粪石沉淀技术,并讨论了这些尿液处理回收技术在BLSS中的应用前景。最后基于BLSS的实际需求,提出了有望用于BLSS中的尿液处理回收技术流程。

English Abstract

朱国荣, 谢倍珍, 刘红. 载人深空探测活动中的尿液处理回收技术分析[J]. 深空探测学报(中英文), 2018, 5(6): 582-590. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
引用本文: 朱国荣, 谢倍珍, 刘红. 载人深空探测活动中的尿液处理回收技术分析[J]. 深空探测学报(中英文), 2018, 5(6): 582-590. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
ZHU Guorong, XIE Beizhen, LIU Hong. Analysis of Urine Treatment and Recovery Technology Used in Manned Deep Space Exploration[J]. Journal of Deep Space Exploration, 2018, 5(6): 582-590. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
Citation: ZHU Guorong, XIE Beizhen, LIU Hong. Analysis of Urine Treatment and Recovery Technology Used in Manned Deep Space Exploration[J]. Journal of Deep Space Exploration, 2018, 5(6): 582-590. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2095-7777.2018.06.012
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