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Articles prepublish have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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Analytical Initialization For Low-Thrust Trajectory Optimization Based on Switching System
WU Di, CHENG Lin, WANG Wei, LI Junfeng
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200090
Abstract(0)
Abstract:
The traditional homotopy method usually transforms the low-thrust fuel-optimal control problem into the energy-optimal problem to increase the convergence rate of the indirect method. However, it is still necessary to guess the initial values of the costates to initialize the solving algorithm. In this paper, the optimization model of the fuel-optimal problem is embedded in the switching system with the analytical initial costates, which further improves the convergence rate with the analytical initialization. Firstly, the switching system is introduced with the embedded fuel-optimal problem. The switching function is designed to realize the switching and continuation. Secondly, based on the linearization technique, the target system is designed with analytical initial costates, initializing the solving algorithm by a simple nominal trajectory. Finally, the numerical simulation shows the effectiveness of the proposed method, which is more efficient than the traditional homotopy method.
Schematic Design of New Generation of Lunar Corner Cube Retroreflector with Single Aperture
HE Yun, HU Zezhu, LI Ming, LIU Qi, YEH Hsienchi
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20190227003
Abstract(3)
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A single large aperture corner cube retroreflector(CCR)for the new generation of Lunar Laser Ranging(LLR)is designed. On the basis of analyzing the current research progress and development trend at home and abroad, the overall design scheme of the single large aperture CCR is introduced including the design of retroreflector, the scheme of placement on lunar surface, and the environmental testing scheme. It is verified that the 170-mm hollow CCR can realize 68.5% reflecting intensity of ideal Apollo 11 CCR array at 532 nm. This study is anticipated to promote the precision of LLR for a single photon received to millimeter level.
Fault Simulation and Experimental Study on High-Thrust LOX/LH2 Rocket Engine
ZHANG Jian, GONG Yanbo, LIU Zhongshu, WANG Weibin
Abstract(13)
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In order to locate the fault in a test of a high-thrust LOX/LH2 engine, the dynamic characteristic simulation model library of liquid rocket engine is established, and the dynamic characteristic simulation model of the high-thrust LOX/LH2 engine is built. The accuracy of the simulation model is verified by comparing with the experimental parameters. According to the possible faults of the engine, the simulation calculation is carried out in turn, and the results are compared with the measured parameters. Through the comparison, it is found that the most likely failure mode is the blockage of the exhaust pipe of the oxygen turbine. In order to verify the simulation results, the verification test was carried out, and the results were in good agreement, which not only proves the accuracy of fault location, but also proves the feasibility of fault location of high thrust oxyhydrogen engine by dynamic simulation, which lays a foundation for further development of fault monitoring and location technology for high-thrust LOX/LH2 rocket engine in the future.
Development of Long March 5 of large capacity FM Telemetry System for Rockets
Lin Min, Zhang Jianing, Xu LinFeng, Zhu Wei, Ren Ning
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210040
Abstract(8)
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The telemetry system is responsible for obtaining the telemetry data of the whole rocket flight, which is the key to evaluate the comprehensive performance of the rocket afterwards. This paper introduces the overall scheme and composition of a new generation of large capacity FM telemetry system applied to Long March 5 carrier rocket. Focusing on the problems faced by the application of the key technology of 10 Mbps high bit rate FM telemetry, the technical breakthroughs and flight test results are given from the aspects of the application of FM telemetry enhancement technology, the synthesis and transmission of hierarchical baseband data and the high gain antenna feed. Combined with the development process, the development experience and application of a new generation of large capacity FM telemetry system for rockets are summarized.
General scheme and Key Technologies of Long March 5 Rockets
LI Dong, LI Pingqi, WANG Jue, HUANG bing, LIU Bing
Abstract(53)
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Long March 5(LM-5)is a new generation of heavy-lift launch Vehicle developed by china. It has successfully completed the first Mars exploration of china and the 3rd phase of China lunar exploration program of Chang’E-5(CE-5). LM-5 experienced 30 years key technology research and engineering development, During this period, a lot of engineering technical problems were conquered, and accumulated rich experience in the development of large cryogenic Launch Vehicle, and constructed the development of the new generation Launch Vehicle system, the development and foundation of Launch Vehicle has a qualitative improvement. This paper describes the development background of LM-5, based on the overall rocket technical scheme and technical innovation, this paper discusses the development thinking of the rocket, the modular configuration scheme, the overall optimization design technology of the whole rocket and the structure technology of the large diameter and large concentrated load rocket body, and probes into the key technical problems of the LM-5 for the deep space exploration mission, orbit Design and optimization technology for deep space exploration mission, narrow window multi-orbit launch technology. LM-5 is a landmark project of new generation launch vehicle in China, representing the highest level of Launch Vehicle technology of China, and is a significant symbol for China’s transformation from a space major to space power.
General Technical Review of Long March 5 Liquid Oxygen Kerosene Engine
CHEN Jianhua, CAO Chen, YANG Yongqiang, LI Miaoting, HOU Ruifeng
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210003
Abstract(15)
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High pressure staged combustion liquid oxygen kerosene engine is used in the boosters of Long March 5 (LM-5) rocket. The engine adopts high pressure staged combustion cycle, and has the characteristics of high performance, self-starting, wide range of thrust and mixing ratio adjustment and compact structure. In this paper, the development history and technical scheme characteristics of LM-5 rocket’s liquid oxygen kerosene engine are reviewed. The key technologies in the development of the parallel mode engines are analyzed emphatically, such as self-starting ignition technology, large time difference asynchronous shutdown technology and low frequency characteristics of structure in YF-100 engine single mode two-engine parallel mode. The improvement direction of performance improvement, structure lightening, reliability growth and full mission environmental adaptability for YF-100 engine is proposed, as well as the demand for high-precision online fault diagnosis system for liquid oxygen kerosene engine.
Optimization Design of Chang'E-5 Mission Overall Plan
PEI Zhaoyu, REN Junjie, PENG Jing, WANG Qiong, HU Zhenyu, LI Haitao, HUANG Lei, GENG Guangyou
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210028
Abstract(69)
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This paper analyzes the mission background, optional technical route, and main risks for the lunar sampling return mission requirements, and then implements multi-scheme trade-off analysis on the system composition of the program, the functional design of the probe, the module composition, launching mode, flight course, etc. based on the technical foundation and the R&D progress of the new generation of carrier rocket in China, and forms the final scheme gradually. As shown in the result, the scheme can conform to the expected development program for our lunar exploration program and space technology, and is advanced and feasible. In addition, NAFVD trade-off design method adopted in the design can provide beneficial reference for the design of complicated and large aerospace engineering programs.
Ground Station Visible Region Determination Method in Chang’E-5 Reentry
CHEN Shaowu, LI Zan, FAN Min, LI Haitao, CHENG Cheng
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200053
Abstract(29)
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A method based on the reentry trajectory is proposed for analysis the region for ground-based Telemetry, Tracking and Command(TT&C)station, aiming at the problem of multi-day trajectory TT&C station layout optimization and resource allocation in emergency TT&C in the process of the TT&C general analysis and design in reentry. Firstly, the model between the position of the station, the reentry module and the elevation angle of the station is propagated, the detail method of the calculation of the station distribution area, in where reentry module is visible, is put forward, and finally the results of the visible region of the ground station are calculated according to the theoretical reentry trajectory. The method proposed in this paper can quickly obtain the station area visible to the reentry module, which is of great significance for the overall design and of emergency control in reentry.
Advances in Space VLF Type II Solar Radio Bursts
GAO Guannan, WANG Min, DONG Liang, GUO Shaojie
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2020.20190222001
Abstract(279)
Abstract:
Solar flares and coronal mass ejections(CMEs)are the source disturbances of space weather. The type II solar radio burst is the result of electromagnetic radiation caused by CME driven shock moving in corona and interplanetary space. Based on the study of solar physics and space weather forecast, the spectrum characteristics and physical causes of type II radio burst, especially VLF type II solar radio burst, are analyzed, it shows that VLF type II solar radio burst can not only be used to estimate the velocity of CME shock, diagnose the coronal magnetic field, but also provide reference for space weather forecast. The research results can provide useful reference for the scientific research of space VLF radio observation equipment.
Adaptive Control for Space Greenhouse Light Assembly
Yu. Berkovich, A. Buryak, O. Ochkov, O. Perevedentsev, S. Smolyanina
 doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2020.20191108001
Abstract(89)
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To date, Light Emitting Diodes-based (LED) illuminators are widely used for plants lighting in greenhouses in addition to natural light, as well as in plant factories without natural light. Optimization of artificial lighting parameters, such as the daily light integral and the ratios of different spectral components, can significantly reduce the cost of crop production in light culture including Space Greenhouses (SG) in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). However, the optimization of LED lighting systems is so far limited by the lack of information about the physiological effects caused by narrow-band radiation, as well as the complexity of the mathematical description of plant crops reactions to the changes of LED lighting parameters. In conditions of artificial illumination, crop producers usually strive to establish an optimal light regime that is constant throughout the whole growing season. However, there is experimental data on changes in the requirements for the illumination regime of crops with increasing age of plants. A promising approach to improving the parameters of crops LED lighting is the adaptive method of search engine optimization using biological feedback. The Adaptive Lighting System (ALS) is described on the basis of illuminator with red and white LEDs built at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (Moscow, Russia) for Chinese cabbage cultivation. The adaptive control procedure implements a continuous automatic search for current lighting parameters that provide optimal plant growth characteristics in real time. ALS includes a closed growth chamber with Light Assembly (LA) based on red and white LEDs, equipped with a Gas CO2 Analyzer (GA). The Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) from each type of LEDs can be controlled independently from each other according to the program in the MicroProcessor (MP). Periodically, infrared GA measures the decrease in CO2 concentration inside the growth chamber caused by Visible Photosynthesis (VF) of the crop. MP receives a signal from the GA output and calculates the photosynthesis rate of the crop, as well as the value of the lighting quality functional at the current time. Then the program compares the obtained values of the optimization criterion at the current moment and at the previous step and calculates the direction of the gradient according to picked algorithm and the new values of the LED supply currents, leading to a change in the value of the optimization criterion in the right direction. Further, the power supply unit realizes the currents of LED chains of each type and LA changes the plant lighting mode. As a criterion for the lighting quality in SG we used the minimum specific value of the Equivalent System Mass (ESM), which depends on the plants lighting regime. The cost coefficients of the unit of SG planting area equivalent mass and the unit of electric power consumed by SG significantly depend both on the spacecraft design and on the space expedition scenario. According to the literature, the equivalent system mass estimates depending on the light flux density and the crop light efficiency have been calculated in a spacecraft for the space expedition scenario at a long-term use lunar base with a crew of 4. To search for the current optimal lighting parameters during the plant growth, gradient and simplex algorithms were used. As optimization factors, the integral PPFD incident on the crop at the shoot tips level and the ratio of red and white light flux densities (factors X1 and X2, respectively) were used. Factor X1 was regulated in the range from 200 μmol/(m2·s) to 700 μmol/(m2·s), and factor X2 was from 0 to 1.5. The effectiveness of ALS was evaluated by comparing ESM when using ALS or the best constant LED lighting from comparison experiment. Adaptive optimization of Chinese cabbage crop lighting from the 14th to 24th day of vegetation according to the minimum ESM criterion (1) for the lunar base expedition led to a 14.9% saving in the SG equivalent mass. Similar systems with other optimization criterion can be use for terrestrial plant factories.
Articles just accepted have been peer-reviewed and accepted, which are not yet assigned to volumes /issues, but are citable by Digital Object Identifier (DOI).
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2021 Vol.8 No.3 Content
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Topic:Key technologies and scientific analysis of lunar sampling return mission
Sampling Area Selection for Chang’E-5 Mission Using the Orbital Geometry
MENG Zhanfeng, GAO Shan, PENG Jing
2021, 8(3): 227-236.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210023
Abstract(89) HTML(32) PDF 1503KB(19)
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The mission trajectories of the Chang’E-5 are complicated with many constraints. Selecting a sampling area is largely determined by inseparable from the trajectory design. In this paper, the sampling area selection method based on the orbital geometry in the Chang’E-5 mission was first proposed and practiced. This method is constrained by principles of the most compact task schedule, the least fuel consumption, the most launch opportunities, and other requirements for sub-systems. First, the feasible sampling area range with the least of engineering implementation cost is calculated. And then the final sampling area range is determined by comprehensively considering the topographic safety and scientific value. Compared with the traditional method, this method considers the strong coupling between the location of the sampling area and the mission trajectory, which is unique to the lunar sampling return mission Besides, this method determines the location and range of the sampling area from the aspects of feasible engineering implementation and wide adaptability, thus ensuring the optimality and wide adaptability of the mission plan. Due to the launch vehicle, the established launch window has been postponed from 2017 to 2020. The designed sampling area range is updated to the new launch date, ensuring that the mission trajectory design remained unchanged. The design laid a solid foundation ensuring the complete success of the Chang’ E-5 Mission.
High Specific Energy Design of Power Supply and Distribution System for Chang’E-5 Orbiter
LIU Zhiqiang, ZHAO Chen, CAO Yan, CHEN Jianyue, YANG Min, LI Tianyi
2021, 8(3): 237-243.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210007
Abstract(13) HTML(8) PDF 800KB(7)
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Limited by the loading capability of launch vehicle, the deep space probe is required to reduce its own weight. Based on the most advanced space power supply technology in China, the power supply and distribution system of Chang’e-5 orbiter adopts ultra-high energy density solar cells and batteries, and invents a new bus topology. Through a series of lightweight power distribution system design, the power to weight ratio of the whole probe reaches the domestic leading level. The power supply and distribution system of spacecraft has passed the ground verification and flight test on in orbit, therefore can be referred for the follow-up research and design of high specific energy of power supply and distribution system of spacecraft.
High Confidence Development Technology of Application Software for GNC Subsystem of Chang’E-5
LI Yi, LI Li, GUO Mingshu, WANG Tonglei, ZHANG Guofeng, LI Xiaofeng
2021, 8(3): 244-251.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200065
Abstract(61) HTML(22) PDF 618KB(6)
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Facing to the high-safety and high-reliability mission requirement, the high-complexity and high-autonomy function requirement, and the high-real-time and strong-sequential performance requirement of mission Chang’E-5, this paper researches the high confidence develop technology of the application software for GNC Subsystem of Chang’E-5. During the requirement analysis, the sequential safety attribute is added to the formal modeling and verification language, which avoids the requirement duality. In phase of design and coding, program slicing is extracted based on the mission profile, which is used in the source code fault localization, comparing to the manual work, the normalization and correctness of source code is improved. The test case auto generate method base on state chart and sequence diagram is researched, and a Full-Automatic Spacecraft software Testing suite is established for the massive test case, the test coverage and efficiency is obviously improved.
Design of Coring Dynamics with Shallow Loose Lunar Regolith
PANG Yong, WANG Guoxin, TANG Bin, WANG Shuchao, ZHAO Zhongxian
2021, 8(3): 252-258.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210019
Abstract(15) HTML(5) PDF 1139KB(7)
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Based on the unmanned lunar surface sampling return mission of Chang’E-5 drilling subsystem, the coring dynamics of spiral drill in shallow loose lunar regolith were studied by experimental method and FEM. Research results are described as follow: the WOB(Weight Of Bit), which is controlled by drilling parameters, is a key parameter in coring dynamics and can influence the effect of coring; The relationship of powder discharge pressure and core resistance is a key factor controlling the sampling effect of auger. Our results improves our understanding of drilling dynamics, therefore will help the designing drilling system for chang’e-6 and other future deep space explorer project.
Control Method of Redundant Winding BLDC for Deep Lunar Soil Drilling
WANG Yingchun, WANG Guoxin, ZHAO Fan, ZHANG Nai, WANG Shuchao
2021, 8(3): 259-268.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210014
Abstract(57) HTML(30) PDF 11730KB(5)
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The deep lunar soil loading process is complicated and volatile; it is difficult to achieve stable and reliable drilling sampling. In order to realize the rotary drive control of low-speed high torque start-up and high-speed cutting dumping of the spiral drilling tool, the redundant double backup winding BLDC motor is used as the driving source of the spiral drilling tool, the mathematical model of torque and speed of the double winding BLDC motor is established, and a dual winding BLDC motor is designed. The drive circuit topology scheme of synchronous operation of winding is simulated and analyzed, and the control performance experiment is carried out combined with the prototype. The test results show that the topological structure of the driving circuit can meet the driving control requirements of lunar soil and lunar rock drilling sampling process, and improve the safety and reliability of the drilling sampling process.
Mission Analysis and Design of Half-Ballistic Reentry for Deep Space Exploration
CHEN Chunliang, ZHANG Zhengfeng, SHENG Ruiqing, YANG Mengfei
2021, 8(3): 269-275.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210016
Abstract(10) HTML(2) PDF 4670KB(9)
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Half-ballistic reentry is one of the key links of deep space exploration mission. It is characterized by many key technologies, many design constrains, and difficulties in experimental verification. According to the idea of System Engineering, aiming at the re-entry and return mission of "Chang'E-5", the design of constraints, reentry corridor, aerodynamic shape and re-entry trajectory is carried out, the relationship between various design elements is clarified, and the design scheme of "Chang'E-5" re-entry system is put forward, and the reentry and return flight procedure and the design of key tasks are also described in this paper. After the actual flight of the reentry vehicle in orbit, it shows that the analysis and design idea of the reentry mission is accurate , which lays the foundation for the subsequent deep space reentry mission.
A Method of Passive Location of the Returnable Spacecraft Beacon
SHEN Xiaoma, LV Bintao, SUN Wei, LIU Yang, YE Jianshe, BIAN Hancheng
2021, 8(3): 276-283.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200054
Abstract(18) HTML(6) PDF 1032KB(6)
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During the landing procedure of a recoverable spacecraft, measurement and control information、COSPAS/SARSAT system information and regional location information are often used. According to the deficiencies of above method, the long baseline TDOA technique is suggested. Firstly the principles of TDOA system and the solution of TDOA equations are proposed. The features of the beacon’s sinusoidal envelop are analyzed. High precision frequency estimation method based on modified Rife algorithm and TOA estimation method based on DTFT phase evaluation algorithm are suggested. Simulations on TDOA precision are given. Location precision distribution of the beacon is simulated. The stationary location error is less than 1km when the target range is less than 100km. When the square style of the receiving stations is applied, the dynamical tracking and filtering process is simulated. The results show that range error is less than 1km and azimuth error is less than 1minute during the tracking procedure. Finally the two-dimension velocity estimation method based on the FDOA information is analyzed.
Design of the Payload Subsystem of Chang’E-5 Lunar Explorer
ZHOU Changyi, WANG Chi, LI Huijun, SUN Huixian, JIANG Yuanyuan, HE Zhiping, ZHOU Bing, YANG Jianfeng, ZHOU Weijia, HU Yongfu, FAN Kaichun, XU Xinfeng, ZHOU Qing, WANG Lei, ZHANG Baoming
2021, 8(3): 290-298.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200050
Abstract(80) HTML(24) PDF 870KB(14)
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To achieve the scientific and engineering goals for situ exploration of the sampling area, The payload subsystem of Chang'E-5 explorer is equipped with four types of scientific payloads: the panoramic camera, descending camera, lunar regolith penetrating radar, lunar mineral spectrometer. It is also equipped with the national flag of China exhibition system, the panoramic camera pan-tilt table, and payload data processor as engineering and supporting payloads. This paper introduces the scientific and engineering goals, system composition, function and performance, system design, and operating achievements of the Chang'E-5 payload subsystem.
A Payload Data Storage and Management Method for Chang’E-5
LIU Pan, WANG Zhiguo, LIU Jianfeng, MIN Kanglei, YOU Hongjun
2021, 8(3): 299-305.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210001
Abstract(91) HTML(30) PDF 592KB(7)
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According to the requirements of multi-load data scheduling, storage multiplexing, storage management and high reliability of lunar exploration project, a management scheme of large-capacity data multiplexing storage module based on NAND Flash chip is designed. Axcelerator series anti-fuse FPGA chip with anti-radiation characteristics is used as the main control chip for scheduling management and storage control of multi-channel load data, and large-capacity NAND Flash chip is used for storage management of multiple loads and on-board telemetry, which realizes the functions of data recording, data management and data playback for multiple data sources as required. The practice results show that the requirements of data multiplexing, storage and playback for deep space exploration can be realized through data transmission frame coding and variable rate playback, which provides reference for the high-speed data downloading for subsequent deep space exploration.
Article
Accurate Matching Algorithm of Small Celestial Body Surface Texture Curve
WANG Guangze, SHAO Wei, CHI Hongliang, YAO Wenlong, HUANG Xiangyu
2021, 8(3): 306-314.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20200096
Abstract(39) HTML(4) PDF 2061KB(6)
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Irregular curves are often used as navigation landmark in the landing of celestial probes. Accurate matching of curves is an important premise for visual navigation. For the problem that curve descriptor matching algorithm are difficult to accurately match and curvature matching algorithm can only handle a pair of curves, an accurate curve matching algorithm combining curve descriptor and curvature is proposed. The curves are extracted by Edge Drawing algorithm first; then the descriptors for curves and supporting regions are built, and the rough matching is completed based on Nearest Neighbor Distance Ratio. After, the unsigned curvature integral is calculated and the curvature is sampled at equal integration intervals. The accurate curve matching is realized based on Normalized Cross Correlation. The experimental results demonstrate that, the algorithm can achieve more than 84% accurate matching rate under scale, rotation and illumination transformations.
Modeling of Mission Planning for Deep Space Probe Based on Knowledge Graph
WANG Xin, ZHAO Qingjie, XU Rui
2021, 8(3): 315-323.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210030
Abstract(45) HTML(5) PDF 987KB(3)
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Designing a deep-space flexible multi-agent probe capable of autonomous task planning is an important direction for future research and development of deep space exploration technology. Multi-agent deep-space probes involve multiple objects, complex constraints and the uncertain deep space environment in mission planning, but traditional mission planning languages may not describe mission planning accurately, intuitively and concisely. In this paper, a knowledge graph is proposed to represent the planning knowledge for a multi-agent deep space probe. The method first carries out knowledge extraction from the deep space probe, then associates the probe with its state and actions by knowledge fusion, and finally mines the potential relationships between agents by knowledge processing. Compared with MA-PDDL, the method proposed in this paper is simpler and more intuitive, which enables the probe to describe its mission planning autonomously, flexibly, and accurately.
Manufacturing Technology for Large Load Spacecraft Soft Landing Airbag
YANG Xia, LI Shaoteng, JIA He, LIU Naibin, WANG Lei
2021, 8(3): 324-332.   doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2021.20210010
Abstract(19) HTML(3) PDF 1352KB(6)
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Combined with the configuration and high strength performance requirements of Mars omnidirectional soft landing airbag, the paper focuses on a manufacturing technology for a soft landing airbag to land large load spacecraft. This paper takes Vectran high-performance composite material as an example, and uses the characteristics of manufacturing processes such as sewing and heat sealing to design different overlapping surface structures. Through the control of the sewing and heat-sealing process, the mechanical properties and air tightness of 9 kinds of overlapping surface structures are tested, and the optimal structure of the combined lap joint (20mm) lap surface is obtained, and the strength efficiency is high as 85.9%. The overlapping surface structure is used in the manufacturing process of such a landing airbag, and the spacecraft launch recovery landing test is carried out. In the test, the model landing is stable without rollover and obvious rebound. After the test, the airbag and model structure are in good condition without damage. The results verify that the feasibility of the overlapping surface configuration can be used in the manufacture of a landing airbag for large load spacecraft.

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