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超远深空探测任务的能源动力解决方案
王颖
北京空间飞行器总体设计部
摘要:
我国开展了大量深空探测方面的研究工作,但超远距离(大于几十个AU,AU为天文单位,指1倍地球到太阳的平均距离,约1.5亿公里)深空探测器在我国尚未实际发射。开展星际探测,可大幅提升我国在空间探测领域的广度和深度,提高空间科学研究所需数据的自给率,在星际探测领域达到国际领先水平。由于木星以远探测器能够接受的太阳辐射强度相比地球降低很多,如何发电以及如何防止探测器过冷,都是需要解决的问题。因此综合考虑飞行空间环境、任务寿命和重量限制等约束条件,对能源系统进行合理设计,以保证探测的任务需求。本文通过对国外相关任务的调研与分析,并结合我国现有的技术基础,选择以空间核动力系统作为能源动力解决方案,同时关注其他概念推进设计,提出了总体任务设想和后续重点需要开展的关键技术。
关键词:  超远深空;探测;能源动力
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基金项目:
Ultra deep space exploration mission and power solutions
Ying Wang
Beijing Institute of Spacecraft System Engineering
Abstract:
China has carried out a lot of research work in the field of deep space exploration, but the ultra deep space exploration (more than dozens of AU, 1AU is the astronomical unit, about 150 million kilometers) mission has not yet been launched. Interstellar exploration can greatly enhance the breadth and depth of space exploration, improve the self-sufficiency of data required by space science research, and reach the international leading level in the world. Far away from Jupiter, satellites will get less solar mediation intensity, how to generate electricity and how to prevent the satellites too cold should be considered. So we need to design a reasonable energy system by considering the limit conditions about flight space environment, task life and weight. On account of the investigation of relevant tasks in foreign countries and the existing technical basis in China, this paper chooses the space nuclear energy system as the main power solution. Meanwhile, it pays attention to the conceptual propulsion design, and puts forward the task assumption and key technologies to be developed in the following aspects.
Key words:  Ultra deep space; exploration; power