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月基SAR对地观测时空特性的研究

陈国强 郭华东 梁达 丁翼星 吕明阳 刘广

陈国强, 郭华东, 梁达, 丁翼星, 吕明阳, 刘广. 月基SAR对地观测时空特性的研究[J]. 深空探测学报(中英文). doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
引用本文: 陈国强, 郭华东, 梁达, 丁翼星, 吕明阳, 刘广. 月基SAR对地观测时空特性的研究[J]. 深空探测学报(中英文). doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
CHEN Guoqiang, GUO Huadong, LIANG Da, DING Yixing, LV Mingyang, LIU Guang. Research on Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Moon-Based SAR Earth Observation[J]. Journal of Deep Space Exploration. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
Citation: CHEN Guoqiang, GUO Huadong, LIANG Da, DING Yixing, LV Mingyang, LIU Guang. Research on Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Moon-Based SAR Earth Observation[J]. Journal of Deep Space Exploration. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076

月基SAR对地观测时空特性的研究

doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
基金项目: 国家自然科学基金(41590853)
详细信息
    作者简介:

    陈国强(1991– ),男,博士研究生,主要研究方向:月基对地观测。通讯地址:北京市海淀区西北旺镇邓庄南路9号空天信息创新研究院(100094)E-mail:chengq@radi.ac.cn

    郭华东(1950– ),男,博士生导师,中国科学院院士、俄罗斯科学院外籍院士、芬兰科学与人文院外籍院士、发展中国家科学院院士。主要研究方向:遥感信息机理、雷达对地观测、数字地球科学。本文通讯作者。通讯地址:北京市海淀区邓庄南路中国科学院空天信息创新研究院(100094)电话:(010)82178000E-mail:hdguo@radi.ac.cn

  • ● In the analysis of Moon-based SAR earth observation, the moon is on longer deemed as a point, but as a celestial body with an average radius. ● An analysis of Doppler characteristics is made in the hemisphere area of near side of the moon, showing that on the near-earth moon surface, antenna attitude can be steered into the corresponding zero Doppler plane. ● An analysis of Moon-based SAR Earth observation’s coverage in spatio-temporal domain shows that Moon-based earth observation has characteristics of long term and large-scale coverage. ● Through echo point compression simulation example and the iterative calculation method in distance history instead of the traditional ‘stop-and-go’ method, the feasibility of Moon-based SAR Earth Observation is verified.
  • 中图分类号: V11

Research on Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Moon-Based SAR Earth Observation

  • 摘要: 月基雷达能对地表目标进行长时间大尺度范围的观测。根据美国喷气推进实验室(Jet Propulsion Laboratory,JPL)星历数据,分析了月基合成孔径雷达微波(Synthetic Aperture Radar ,SAR)平台在不同场景时对地球在时间上和空间上观测性能的差异,结合实际地月相对运动的空间关系完成了月基SAR回波的仿真。结果表明:通过月基SAR平台,可以找到位于地表的零多普勒面交线,并以此为基础实现较长时间、较大地面范围的周期性观测,用SAR回波仿真验证了其可行性。通过研究月基SAR的观测,可以为后续研究诸如地表潮汐运动、极区海冰回弹提供基础。
    Highlights
    ● In the analysis of Moon-based SAR earth observation, the moon is on longer deemed as a point, but as a celestial body with an average radius. ● An analysis of Doppler characteristics is made in the hemisphere area of near side of the moon, showing that on the near-earth moon surface, antenna attitude can be steered into the corresponding zero Doppler plane. ● An analysis of Moon-based SAR Earth observation’s coverage in spatio-temporal domain shows that Moon-based earth observation has characteristics of long term and large-scale coverage. ● Through echo point compression simulation example and the iterative calculation method in distance history instead of the traditional ‘stop-and-go’ method, the feasibility of Moon-based SAR Earth Observation is verified.
  • 图  1  一个恒星年中月球正面的多普勒中心频率均值/Hz(天线指向地球质心)

    Fig.  1  Average Doppler frequency in a sidereal year (the antenna points to the centroid of the earth)

    图  2  不同距离向宽度角下的波束地心纬度大小/度

    Fig.  2  Geocentric latitudes (deg) in different range angles, such as 0.3°and 0.5°

    图  3  不同最大入射角时的波束地心纬度大小

    Fig.  3  Geocentric latitudes (deg) in different maximum incident angles, such as 79°and 40°

    图  4  不同下视角下的地面覆盖时长(h)

    Fig.  4  The time (hour) of coverage in different side angles, such as 0.4° and 0.6°

    图  5  月基SAR平台与地面目标之间的距离

    Fig.  5  Distance between Moon-based SAR and corresponding earth target

    图  6  单目标点压缩图像

    Fig.  6  Single target image after compression

    图  7  单目标点行切片和列切片

    Fig.  7  Row slice and column slice of the image

    表  1  月表正面不同纬度线上,航迹速度与月基SAR至地心连线角度的最大值、平均值和最小值

    Table  1  The maximum, average and minimum value of the angle between track speed and vector from Moon-based SAR (on the near side of moon surface) to earth center in different latitude lines in a sidereal year

    纬度线最大值平均值最小值
    80°N90.016°90°89.985°
    60°N90.005°90°89.995°
    30°N90.019°90°89.982°
    90.011°90°89.989°
    30°S90.015°90°89.985°
    60°S90.016°90°89.985°
    80°S90.011°90°89.990°
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  2  不同SAR波束在地表的覆盖情况

    Table  2  Coverage of different SAR beams

    下视角/
    (°)
    方位向宽度
    角/(°)
    距离向宽度
    角/(°)
    覆盖
    百分比/%
    近似面积
    (万km2)
    0.10.050.050.07538.25
    0.30.050.050.07940.29
    0.30.20.10.64326.44
    0.40.20.10.67341.74
    0.40.350.354.412 249.38
    0.50.480.488.454 310.04
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  3  不同场景的双程延迟时间

    Table  3  Delay time for different scenarios

    纬度/(°),经度/(°)下视角/ (°)$ {T}_{a} $/s$ {\tau }_{\mathrm{m}\mathrm{i}\mathrm{n}} $/sTime span/s
    (0, 0)0.11002.335 644.98
    (0, 0)0.21002.336 239.03
    (0, 0)0.31502.337 263.14
    (10,10)0.11502.336 132.62
    (10,10)0.12502.336 182.62
    (10,10)0.22502.336 781.43
    下载: 导出CSV

    表  4  仿真部分参数

    Table  4  Part of the simulation parameters

    参数符号数值
    载频f0/Hz2.3×1010
    距离向调频率Kr(Hz/s)1013
    脉冲持续时间Tr/s8×10-6
    合成孔径时间Ta/s100
    方位向采样率PRF/Hz100
    方位向天线尺寸La/m20
    距离向天线尺寸Lr/m4
    下载: 导出CSV
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  • 收稿日期:  2021-08-30
  • 修回日期:  2021-10-14
  • 网络出版日期:  2022-05-19

月基SAR对地观测时空特性的研究

doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
    基金项目:  国家自然科学基金(41590853)
    作者简介:

    陈国强(1991– ),男,博士研究生,主要研究方向:月基对地观测。通讯地址:北京市海淀区西北旺镇邓庄南路9号空天信息创新研究院(100094)E-mail:chengq@radi.ac.cn

    郭华东(1950– ),男,博士生导师,中国科学院院士、俄罗斯科学院外籍院士、芬兰科学与人文院外籍院士、发展中国家科学院院士。主要研究方向:遥感信息机理、雷达对地观测、数字地球科学。本文通讯作者。通讯地址:北京市海淀区邓庄南路中国科学院空天信息创新研究院(100094)电话:(010)82178000E-mail:hdguo@radi.ac.cn

  • ● In the analysis of Moon-based SAR earth observation, the moon is on longer deemed as a point, but as a celestial body with an average radius. ● An analysis of Doppler characteristics is made in the hemisphere area of near side of the moon, showing that on the near-earth moon surface, antenna attitude can be steered into the corresponding zero Doppler plane. ● An analysis of Moon-based SAR Earth observation’s coverage in spatio-temporal domain shows that Moon-based earth observation has characteristics of long term and large-scale coverage. ● Through echo point compression simulation example and the iterative calculation method in distance history instead of the traditional ‘stop-and-go’ method, the feasibility of Moon-based SAR Earth Observation is verified.
  • 中图分类号: V11

摘要: 月基雷达能对地表目标进行长时间大尺度范围的观测。根据美国喷气推进实验室(Jet Propulsion Laboratory,JPL)星历数据,分析了月基合成孔径雷达微波(Synthetic Aperture Radar ,SAR)平台在不同场景时对地球在时间上和空间上观测性能的差异,结合实际地月相对运动的空间关系完成了月基SAR回波的仿真。结果表明:通过月基SAR平台,可以找到位于地表的零多普勒面交线,并以此为基础实现较长时间、较大地面范围的周期性观测,用SAR回波仿真验证了其可行性。通过研究月基SAR的观测,可以为后续研究诸如地表潮汐运动、极区海冰回弹提供基础。

注释:
1)  ● In the analysis of Moon-based SAR earth observation, the moon is on longer deemed as a point, but as a celestial body with an average radius. ● An analysis of Doppler characteristics is made in the hemisphere area of near side of the moon, showing that on the near-earth moon surface, antenna attitude can be steered into the corresponding zero Doppler plane. ● An analysis of Moon-based SAR Earth observation’s coverage in spatio-temporal domain shows that Moon-based earth observation has characteristics of long term and large-scale coverage. ● Through echo point compression simulation example and the iterative calculation method in distance history instead of the traditional ‘stop-and-go’ method, the feasibility of Moon-based SAR Earth Observation is verified.

English Abstract

陈国强, 郭华东, 梁达, 丁翼星, 吕明阳, 刘广. 月基SAR对地观测时空特性的研究[J]. 深空探测学报(中英文). doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
引用本文: 陈国强, 郭华东, 梁达, 丁翼星, 吕明阳, 刘广. 月基SAR对地观测时空特性的研究[J]. 深空探测学报(中英文). doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
CHEN Guoqiang, GUO Huadong, LIANG Da, DING Yixing, LV Mingyang, LIU Guang. Research on Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Moon-Based SAR Earth Observation[J]. Journal of Deep Space Exploration. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
Citation: CHEN Guoqiang, GUO Huadong, LIANG Da, DING Yixing, LV Mingyang, LIU Guang. Research on Spatio-Temporal Characteristics of Moon-Based SAR Earth Observation[J]. Journal of Deep Space Exploration. doi: 10.15982/j.issn.2096-9287.2022.20210076
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