Focused on the image data storage, compression and transmission of mars rover, system design and key hardware/software architecture design are carried out in this paper based on the analysis of function requirements and key design features. Image compression algorithm and transmission protocol are proposed, and the image storage and compression module in Mars rover is designed and implemented. The multi-camera partition parallel image file system based on FPGA（Field Programmable Gate Array）is realized. The adaptive first 1 run length coding algorithm for image compression based on DSP is realized on this module. Finally the function of multi-camera image data storage and management, flexible control of image compression ratio, quality progressive transmission, coding of region of interest, anti-error code diffusion and image thumbnail downward transmission are realized in the engineering development, meeting the reliable, efficient and flexible application requirements of China’s first Mars exploration mission.