The first Mars Exploration in China was approved in 2016. First, the history of international Mars exploration is reviewed. Then the engineering and scientific goals, overall technical porposal, key technologies and prospective innovation results of Chinese Mars exploration are introduced. The first Mars Exploration in China will archive Martian orbiting, landing and patrol, and carry out global general survey and partial fine investigation by one launch mission, promoting the research of Mars landform and geological structure, soil characteristics and water-ice distribution, surface material composition, atomospheric ionosphere and climate enviroment, physical field and internal structure, etc. Facing various special environments for Mars exploration, it is necessary to make breakthrough of 8 key technologies such as long-term autonomous control and management, and etc.. Through the Mars Exploration, a series of innovative results will be achieved, a series of common core technologies will be mastered and the independent fundamental engineering system of deep space exploration will be established, and then the fundamental engineering ability will be formed to carry out deep space exploration.