A short review of the available data on plant development, seed-to-seed, and next generations, and formation of generative and vegetative organs in real and simulated microgravity is presented. It is emphasized the timeliness of the emergence of plant space reproductive biology and its importance for progress in space agriculture that is necessary for future human exploration of space.
太阳耀斑和日冕物质抛射是太阳系所发生的最猛烈的爆发事件，能向行星际空间释放出三大类扰动源：强烈的电磁波辐射增强、抛出大量磁化等离子体云团、发射巨量的非热高能粒子流。它们在行星际空间产生剧烈扰动，传播到近地空间时，将触发一系列灾害性空间天气事件，严重干扰各种高技术系统的安全运行。其中，与太阳活动密切相关的非热高能粒子流是产生灾害性空间天气事件最主要的驱动源之一。太阳非热高能粒子流的主要观测特征便是具有快速频率漂移特征的射电Ⅲ型爆。但是，当它们传播到超过太阳表面以上5~10倍太阳半径的行星际空间以后，由于等离子体密度非常稀薄，辐射频率降低到大约30 MHz以下的空间甚低频波段（SVLF），这时地基望远镜已经无法给出有效探测和追踪。空间或月基甚低频太阳射电探测器可以对频率为0.1~80 MHz的射电辐射信号进行频谱观测，在该频段发现的射电Ⅲ型爆能有效探测和跟踪非热高能粒子流在广阔的行星际空间中的传播和演变特征，为灾害性空间天气事件预报提供直接依据。主要介绍了国际上在空间甚低频波段太阳射电Ⅲ型爆的观测和研究进展和存在的主要问题，并讨论了空间甚低频射电探测器的观测数据在太阳射电Ⅲ型爆研究方面的主要科学目标和前景。
To date, Light Emitting Diodes-based (LED) illuminators are widely used for plants lighting in greenhouses in addition to natural light, as well as in plant factories without natural light. Optimization of artificial lighting parameters, such as the daily light integral and the ratios of different spectral components, can significantly reduce the cost of crop production in light culture including Space Greenhouses (SG) in Biological Life Support Systems (BLSS). However, the optimization of LED lighting systems is so far limited by the lack of information about the physiological effects caused by narrow-band radiation, as well as the complexity of the mathematical description of plant crops reactions to the changes of LED lighting parameters. In conditions of artificial illumination, crop producers usually strive to establish an optimal light regime that is constant throughout the whole growing season. However, there is experimental data on changes in the requirements for the illumination regime of crops with increasing age of plants. A promising approach to improving the parameters of crops LED lighting is the adaptive method of search engine optimization using biological feedback. The Adaptive Lighting System (ALS) is described on the basis of illuminator with red and white LEDs built at the Institute for Biomedical Problems (Moscow, Russia) for Chinese cabbage cultivation. The adaptive control procedure implements a continuous automatic search for current lighting parameters that provide optimal plant growth characteristics in real time. ALS includes a closed growth chamber with Light Assembly (LA) based on red and white LEDs, equipped with a Gas CO2 Analyzer (GA). The Photosynthetic Photon Flux Density (PPFD) from each type of LEDs can be controlled independently from each other according to the program in the MicroProcessor (MP). Periodically, infrared GA measures the decrease in CO2 concentration inside the growth chamber caused by Visible Photosynthesis (VF) of the crop. MP receives a signal from the GA output and calculates the photosynthesis rate of the crop, as well as the value of the lighting quality functional at the current time. Then the program compares the obtained values of the optimization criterion at the current moment and at the previous step and calculates the direction of the gradient according to picked algorithm and the new values of the LED supply currents, leading to a change in the value of the optimization criterion in the right direction. Further, the power supply unit realizes the currents of LED chains of each type and LA changes the plant lighting mode. As a criterion for the lighting quality in SG we used the minimum specific value of the Equivalent System Mass (ESM), which depends on the plants lighting regime. The cost coefficients of the unit of SG planting area equivalent mass and the unit of electric power consumed by SG significantly depend both on the spacecraft design and on the space expedition scenario. According to the literature, the equivalent system mass estimates depending on the light flux density and the crop light efficiency have been calculated in a spacecraft for the space expedition scenario at a long-term use lunar base with a crew of 4. To search for the current optimal lighting parameters during the plant growth, gradient and simplex algorithms were used. As optimization factors, the integral PPFD incident on the crop at the shoot tips level and the ratio of red and white light flux densities (factors X1 and X2, respectively) were used. Factor X1 was regulated in the range from 200 μmol/(m2·s) to 700 μmol/(m2·s), and factor X2 was from 0 to 1.5. The effectiveness of ALS was evaluated by comparing ESM when using ALS or the best constant LED lighting from comparison experiment. Adaptive optimization of Chinese cabbage crop lighting from the 14th to 24th day of vegetation according to the minimum ESM criterion (1) for the lunar base expedition led to a 14.9% saving in the SG equivalent mass. Similar systems with other optimization criterion can be use for terrestrial plant factories.
耀斑和日冕物质抛射（Solar flares and coronal Mass Ejections，CME）是产生灾害性空间天气的源扰动。II型射电暴是CME驱动的激波在日冕和行星际空间中运动引起电磁波辐射的结果。以研究太阳物理和空间天气预警预报为背景，对II型射电暴特别是甚低频II型射电暴的频谱特征以及物理成因进行分析，认为甚低频II型射电暴不但可以用于估计CME激波的运动速度、诊断日冕磁场等物理参数，还可以为空间天气预警预报方面提供参考。研究结果可以为空间甚低频射电观测设备的科学研究及应用方面提供有益的参考。
综述了CZ-8运载火箭的最新研究成果。CZ-8运载火箭充分继承了在役和新一代运载火箭的研制成果，以发射太阳同步轨道（700 ~1 000 km）卫星为主，并兼顾近地球轨道（Low Earth Orbit，LEO）和地球同步转移轨道（Geostationary Transfer Orbit，GTO）。CZ-8设计有组合型和融合型两种配置，可面向多种任务，尤其针对商业发射市场，在快捷制造、系统集成、快响发射、自主无人值守、简化对发射场要求等方面开展了大量创新性的实践，显著提升了竞争力。应对未来智慧火箭的目标，开展了上升段应对推力下降故障的动态轨迹规划、起飞漂移主动控制、发射窗口自主修正等自主技术的研究和应用；针对重复使用的需求，采用集束式回收方案进行关键技术攻关和验证，按照分步发展的策略，在大型轻质着陆机构、自主制导方法等方面取得了阶段性的进展。上述创新最终将CZ-8努力打造成为性价比高、易用性好、安全性高的新一代中型主力火箭。